Diabetes mellitus is a common disease in dogs and cats. The most common form of diabetes in dogs resembles type 1 diabetes in humans. Studies suggest that genetics, an immune-mediated component, and environmental factors are involved in the development of diabetes in dogs. A variant of gestational diabetes also occurs in dogs. The most common form of diabetes in cats resembles type 2 diabetes in humans. A major risk factor in cats is obesity. Obese cats have altered expression of several insulin signaling genes and glucose transporters and are leptin resistant. Cats also form amyloid deposits within the islets of the pancreas and develop glucotoxicity when exposed to prolonged hyperglycemia. This review will briefly summarize our current knowledge about the etiology of diabetes in dogs and cats and illustrate the similarities among dogs, cats, and humans.
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- Abstract: Diabetes x
- Abstract: Islets x
- Abstract: Insulin x
- Abstract: BetaCells x
- Abstract: Obesity x
- Abstract: Hyperglycemia x
- Abstract: Hypoglycemia x
- Abstract: Insulinoma x
- Abstract: Glucagon x
- Abstract: IGF* x
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Richard W Nelson and Claudia E Reusch
Monisha Rajasekaran, Ok-Joo Sul, Eun-Kyung Choi, Ji-Eun Kim, Jae-Hee Suh, and Hye-Seon Choi
Obesity is strongly associated with chronic inflammation for which adipose tissue macrophages play a critical role. The objective of this study is to identify monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, CCL2) as a key player governing M1–M2 macrophage polarization and energy balance. We evaluated body weight, fat mass, adipocyte size and energy expenditure as well as core body temperature of Ccl2 knockout mice compared with wild-type mice. Adipose tissues, differentiated adipocyte and bone marrow-derived macrophages were assessed by qPCR, Western blot analysis and histochemistry. MCP-1 deficiency augmented energy expenditure by promoting browning in white adipose tissue and brown adipose tissue activity via increasing the expressions of Ucp1, Prdm16, Tnfrsf9, Ppargc1a, Nrf1 and Th and mitochondrial DNA copy number. MCP-1 abrogation promoted M2 polarization which is characterized by increased expression of Arg1, Chil3, Il10 and Klf4 whereas it decreased M1 polarization by decreased p65 nuclear translocation and attenuated expression of Itgax, Tnf and Nos2, leading to increased browning of adipocytes. Enhanced M2 polarization and attenuated M1 polarization in the absence of MCP-1 are independent. Collectively, our results suggest that the action of MCP-1 in macrophages modulates energy expenditure by impairing browning in adipose tissue.
Jae Woo Jung, Chihoon Ahn, Sun Young Shim, Peter C Gray, Witek Kwiatkowski, and Senyon Choe
Activins and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) share activin type 2 signaling receptors but utilize different type 1 receptors and Smads. We designed AB215, a potent BMP2-like Activin A/BMP2 chimera incorporating the high-affinity type 2 receptor-binding epitope of Activin A. In this study, we compare the signaling properties of AB215 and BMP2 in HEK293T cells and gonadotroph LβT2 cells in which Activin A and BMP2 synergistically induce FSHβ. In HEK293T cells, AB215 is more potent than BMP2 and competitively blocks Activin A signaling, while BMP2 has a partial blocking activity. Activin A signaling is insensitive to BMP pathway antagonism in HEK293T cells but is strongly inhibited by constitutively active (CA) BMP type 1 receptors. By contrast, the potencies of AB215 and BMP2 are indistinguishable in LβT2 cells and although AB215 blocks Activin A signaling, BMP2 has no inhibitory effect. Unlike HEK293T, Activin A signaling is strongly inhibited by BMP pathway antagonism in LβT2 cells but is largely unaffected by CA BMP type 1 receptors. BMP2 increases phospho-Smad3 levels in LβT2 cells, in both the absence and the presence of Activin A treatment, and augments Activin A-induced FSHβ. AB215 has the opposite effect and sharply decreases basal phospho-Smad3 levels and blocks Smad2 phosphorylation and FSHβ induction resulting from Activin A treatment. These findings together demonstrate that while AB215 activates the BMP pathway, it has opposing effects to those of BMP2 on FSHβ induction in LβT2 cells apparently due to its ability to block Activin A signaling.
Neville H McClenaghan, Peter R Flatt, and Andrew J Ball
This study examined the effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) on insulin secretion alone and in combination with sulphonylureas or nateglinide, with particular attention to KATP channel-independent insulin secretion. In depolarised cells, GLP-1 significantly augmented glucose-induced KATP channel-independent insulin secretion in a glucose concentration-dependent manner. GLP-1 similarly augmented the KATP channel-independent insulin-releasing effects of tolbutamide, glibenclamide or nateglinide. Downregulation of protein kinase A (PKA)- or protein kinase C (PKC)-signalling pathways in culture revealed that the KATP channel-independent effects of sulphonylureas or nateglinide were critically dependent upon intact PKA and PKC signalling. In contrast, GLP-1 exhibited a reduced but still significant insulin-releasing effect following PKA and PKC downregulation, indicating that GLP-1 can modulate KATP channel-independent insulin secretion by protein kinase-dependent and -independent mechanisms. The synergistic insulin-releasing effects of combinatorial GLP-1 and sulphonylurea/nateglinide were lost following PKA- or PKC-desensitisation, despite GLP-1 retaining an insulin-releasing effect, demonstrating that GLP-1 can induce insulin release under conditions where sulphonylureas and nateglinide are no longer effective. Our results provide new insights into the mechanisms of action of GLP-1, and further highlight the promise of GLP-1 or similarly acting analogues alone or in combination with sulphonylureas or meglitinide drugs in type 2 diabetes therapy.
The CCN family comprises cysteine-rich 61 (CYR61/CCN1), connective tIssue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2), nephroblastoma overexpressed (NOV/CCN3), and Wnt-induced secreted proteins-1 (WISP-1/CCN4), -2 (WISP-2/CCN5) and -3 (WISP-3/CCN6). These proteins stimulate mitosis, adhesion, apoptosis, extracellular matrix production, growth arrest and migration of multiple cell types. Many of these activities probably occur through the ability of CCN proteins to bind and activate cell surface integrins. Accumulating evidence supports a role for these factors in endocrine pathways and endocrine-related processes. To illustrate the broad role played by the CCN family in basic and clinical endocrinology, this Article highlights the relationship between CCN proteins and hormone action, skeletal growth, placental angiogenesis, IGF-binding proteins and diabetes-induced fibrosis.
E Zoidis, C Ghirlanda-Keller, M Gosteli-Peter, J Zapf, and C Schmid
In osteoblasts only the type III Na(+)-dependent phosphate (NaPi) transporter isoforms Pit-1 and Pit-2 have been identified. We tested the effects of extracellular Pi, Ca(2+) and IGF-I on Na(d)Pi transport and Pit-1 or Pit-2 mRNA expression in rat osteoblastic (PyMS) cells. The v(max) of Na(d)Pi transport was higher in cells kept in Pi-free, serum-free medium for 24 h than in controls at 1 mM Pi (2.47+/-0.20 vs 1.83+/-0.17 nmol/mg protein x 10 min). The apparent affinity constant (K(M)) for Pi remained unchanged. Pi withdrawal for 24 h did not impair cell viability whereas increasing the extracellular Pi to 5 mM resulted in cell death. Pit-1 (but not Pit-2) mRNA was upregulated following Pi deprivation, Ca(2+) treatment or after treatment with 1 nM IGF-I, known to stimulate Na(d)Pi transport and cell proliferation. IGF-I also stimulated Na(d)Pi transport and Pit-1 mRNA in primary rat calvarial osteoblasts. Expression of Pit-1 mRNA in vivo and the coordinate regulation of Pit-1 mRNA and Pi transport in osteoblastic cells suggest that Pit-1 is a candidate transporter of physiological relevance in bone.
Martina Bugáňová, Helena Pelantová, Martina Holubová, Blanka Šedivá, Lenka Maletínská, Blanka Železná, Jaroslav Kuneš, Petr Kačer, Marek Kuzma, and Martin Haluzík
Liraglutide is the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist widely used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Recently, it has been demonstrated to decrease cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes and high cardiovascular risk. Although the major modes of liraglutide action are well-known, its detailed action at the metabolic level has not been studied. To this end, we explored the effect of 2-week liraglutide treatment in C57BL/6 male mice with obesity and diabetes induced by 13 weeks of high-fat diet using NMR spectroscopy to capture the changes in urine metabolic profile induced by the therapy. The liraglutide treatment decreased body and fat pads weight along with blood glucose and triglyceride levels. NMR spectroscopy identified 11 metabolites significantly affected by liraglutide treatment as compared to high-fat diet-fed control group. These metabolites included ones involved in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide metabolism, β-oxidation of fatty acids and microbiome changes. Although majority of the metabolites changed after liraglutide treatment were similar as the ones previously identified after vildagliptin administration in a similar mouse model, the changes in creatinine, taurine and trigonelline were specific for liraglutide administration. The significance of these changes and its possible use in the personalization of antidiabetic therapy in humans requires further research.
RH McCusker and J Novakofski
Zinc (Zn(2+)), a multifunctional micronutrient, was recently shown to lower the affinity of cell-associated insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein (IGFBP)-3 and IGFBP-5 for both IGF-I and IGF-II, but to increase the affinity of the cell surface type 1 IGF receptor (IGF-1R) for the same two ligands. However, there is a need for data concerning the effects of Zn(2+) on soluble IGFBPs and the type 2 IGF receptor (IGF-2R). In the current work, we demonstrate that Zn(2+) affects the affinity of IGFBP-5 secreted by myoblasts but not IGFBP-4. Zn(2+), at physiological levels, depressed binding of both IGF-I and IGF-II to IGFBP-5, affecting (125)I-IGF-I more than (125)I-IGF-II. Both (125)I-IGF-I and (125)I-IGF-II bound to high and low affinity sites on IGFBP-5. Zn(2+) converted the high affinity binding sites of IGFBP-5 into low affinity binding sites. An IGF-I analog, (125)I-R(3)-IGF-I, did not bind to the soluble murine IGFBP-5. Zn(2+) also decreased the affinity of the IGF-2R on L6 myoblasts. In contrast, Zn(2+) increased IGF-I, IGF-II and R(3)-IGF-I binding to the IGF-1R by increasing ligand binding affinity on both P(2)A(2a)-LISN and L6 myoblasts. Soluble IGFBP-5 and IGFBP-4 depressed the binding of (125)I-IGF-I and (125)I-IGF-II to the IGF-1R, but did not affect binding of (125)I-R(3)-IGF-I. By depressing the association of the IGFs with soluble IGFBP-5, Zn(2+) partitioned (125)I-IGF-I and (125)I-IGF-II from soluble IGFBP-5 onto cell surface IGF-1Rs. This effect is not seen when soluble L6-derived IGFBP-4 is present in extracellular fluids. We introduce a novel mechanism by which the trace micronutrient Zn(2+) may alter IGF distribution, i.e. Zn(2+) acts to increase IGF-1R binding at the expense of IGF binding to soluble IGFBP-5 and the IGF-2R.
M. Tepel, S. Bauer, S. Husseini, A. Raffelsiefer, and W. Zidek
Cytosolic free sodium concentrations ([Na+]i) in intact platelets from 32 type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients and from 27 age- and sex-matched non-diabetic control subjects were measured with the novel sodium-sensitive fluorescent dye sodium-binding-benzofuran-isophthalate. [Na+]i was significantly higher in platelets from type 2 diabetic patients compared with control subjects (40·6 ± 2·4 vs 32·0 ± 2·0 mmol/l, means ± s.e.m., P<0·03). Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly elevated in diabetic patients compared with control subjects. Analysis of diabetic patients showed a significant association between [Na+]i and diastolic blood pressure (P =0·026). Stimulation of Na/H exchange by thrombin increased [Na+]i in both groups. After inhibition of Na/K/ATPase by ouabain (1 mmol/l), [Na+]i was significantly increased both in diabetic patients and non-diabetic subjects in a similar way (by 40·2 ± 7·3 and 31·7 ± 5·3 mmol/l respectively). It is concluded that increased [Na+]i in cells from type 2 diabetic patients may be related to hypertension.
Journal of Endocrinology (1993) 138, 565–572
Zhengu Liu, Violeta Stanojevic, Luke J Brindamour, and Joel F Habener
Type 2 diabetes, often associated with obesity, results from a deficiency of insulin production and action manifested in increased blood levels of glucose and lipids that further promote insulin resistance and impair insulin secretion. Glucolipotoxicity caused by elevated plasma glucose and lipid levels is a major cause of impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells, due to increased oxidative stress, and insulin resistance. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1), an insulinotropic glucoincretin hormone, is known to promote β-cell survival via its actions on its G-protein-coupled receptor on β-cells. Here, we report that a nonapeptide, GLP1(28–36)amide, derived from the C-terminal domain of the insulinotropic GLP1, exerts cytoprotective actions on INS-1 β-cells and on dispersed human islet cells in vitro in conditions of glucolipotoxicity and increased oxidative stress independently of the GLP1 receptor. The nonapeptide appears to enter preferably stressed, glucolipotoxic cells compared with normal unstressed cells. It targets mitochondria and improves impaired mitochondrial membrane potential, increases cellular ATP levels, inhibits cytochrome c release, caspase activation, and apoptosis, and enhances the viability and survival of INS-1 β-cells. We propose that GLP1(28–36)amide might be useful in alleviating β-cell stress and might improve β-cell functions and survival.