Wnt binding to cell surface receptors can activate a ‘canonical’ pathway that increases cellular β-catenin or a ‘noncanonical’ Ca++ pathway which can increase protein kinase C (PKC) activity. Although components of both Wnt/β-catenin-signaling pathways exist in thyrocytes, their biological role is largely unknown. In evaluating the biological role of Wnt signaling in differentiated FRTL-5 thyroid cells, we showed that TSH increased canonical Wnt-1 but, surprisingly, decreased the active form of β-catenin. Transient overexpression of Wnt-1 or β-catenin in FRTL-5 cells increased active β-catenin (ABC), decreased thyroperoxidase (TPO) mRNA, and suppressed TPO-promoter activity. The target of β-catenin suppressive action was a consensus T cell factor/lymphoid enhancing factor (TCF/LEF)-binding site 5′-A/T A/T CAAAG-3′, −137 to −129 bp on the rat TPO promoter. β-Catenin overexpression significantly increased complex formation between β-catenin/TCF-1 and an oligonucleotide containing the TCF/LEF sequence, suggesting that the β-catenin/TCF-1 complex acts as a transcriptional repressor of the TPO gene. Stable over-expression of Wnt-1 in FRTL-5 cells significantly increased the growth rate without increasing β-catenin levels. Increased growth was blunted by a PKC inhibitor, staurosporin. Wnt-1 overexpression increased serine phosphorylation, without affecting tyrosine phosphorylation, of signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) protein. In addition, these final results suggest that TSH-induced increase in Wnt-1 levels in thyrocytes contributes to enhanced cellular growth via a PKC pathway that increases STAT3 serine phosphorylation and activation, whereas TSH-induced decrease in activation of β-catenin simultaneously relieves transcriptional suppression of TPO. We hypothesize that Wnt signaling contributes to the ability of TSH to simultaneously increase cell growth and functional, thyroid-specific, gene expression.
Won Bae Kim, Christopher J Lewis, Kelly D McCall, Ramiro Malgor, Aimee D Kohn, Randall T Moon, and Leonard D Kohn
Kelly D McCall, Dawn Holliday, Eric Dickerson, Brian Wallace, Anthony L Schwartz, Christopher Schwartz, Christopher J Lewis, Leonard D Kohn, and Frank L Schwartz
Visceral adipocytes and associated macrophages produce and release excessive amounts of biologically active inflammatory cytokines via the portal and systemic vascular system, which induce insulin resistance in insulin target tissues such as fat, liver, and muscle. Free fatty acids (FFAs) absorbed via the portal system or released from adipocytes also induce insulin resistance. In this report, we show that phenylmethimazole (C10) blocks basal IL6 and leptin production as well as basal Socs-3 expression in fully differentiated 3T3L1 cells (3T3L1 adipocytes) without affecting insulin-stimulated AKT signaling. In addition, C10 inhibits palmitate-induced IL6 and iNos up-regulation in both 3T3L1 adipocytes and RAW 264.7 macrophages, LPS-induced NF-κB and IFN-β activation in 3T3L1 cells, and LPS-induced iNos, Ifn- β, Il1 β, Cxcl10, and Il6 expression in RAW 264.7 macrophages. C10 also blocks palmitate-induced Socs-3 up-regulation and insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) serine 307 phosphorylation in 3T3L1 adipocytes. Additionally, we show for the first time that although palmitate increases IRS-1 serine 307 phosphorylation in 3T3L1 adipocytes, AKT serine 473 phosphorylation is enhanced, not reduced, by palmitate. These results suggest that through inhibition of FFA-mediated signaling in adipocytes and associated macrophages, as well as possibly other insulin target cells/tissues (i.e. non-immune cells), C10 might be efficacious to prevent or reverse cytokine-induced insulin resistance seen in obesity-related insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Ashley Patton, Tyler Church, Caroline Wilson, Jean Thuma, Douglas J Goetz, Darlene E Berryman, Edward O List, Frank Schwartz, and Kelly D McCall
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of both metabolic and inflammatory diseases and has become the leading chronic liver disease worldwide. High-fat (HF) diets promote an increased uptake and storage of free fatty acids (FFAs) and triglycerides (TGs) in hepatocytes, which initiates steatosis and induces lipotoxicity, inflammation and insulin resistance. Activation and signaling of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) by FFAs induces inflammation evident in NAFLD and insulin resistance. Currently, there are no effective treatments to specifically target inflammation associated with this disease. We have established the efficacy of phenylmethimazole (C10) to prevent lipopolysaccharide and palmitate-induced TLR4 signaling. Because TLR4 is a key mediator in pro-inflammatory responses, it is a potential therapeutic target for NAFLD. Here, we show that treatment with C10 inhibits HF diet-induced inflammation in both liver and mesenteric adipose tissue measured by a decrease in mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Additionally, C10 treatment improves glucose tolerance and hepatic steatosis despite the development of obesity due to HF diet feeding. Administration of C10 after 16 weeks of HF diet feeding reversed glucose intolerance, hepatic inflammation, and improved hepatic steatosis. Thus, our findings establish C10 as a potential therapeutic for the treatment of NAFLD.