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Zhongyang Lu, Xiaoming Zhang, Yanchun Li, Junfei Jin, and Yan Huang

apolipoprotein AI deficient mice . Atherosclerosis 172 47 – 53 . ( doi:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2003.09.014 ) Grieco FA Vendrame F Spagnuolo I Dotta F 2011 Innate immunity and the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes . Seminars in Immunopathology

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Xuefeng Yang, Shuang Mei, Haihua Gu, Huailan Guo, Longying Zha, Junwei Cai, Xuefeng Li, Zhenqi Liu, and Wenhong Cao

proteins/amino acids. Thus, we have recently addressed several simple questions. First, does glucose itself cause insulin resistance in the absence of insulin? Our results show that animals with untreated hyperglycemia in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM

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Jeffrey Friedman

efficacy for the treatment of type 1 diabetes. This possibility has now been tested in streptozotocin-treated mice who are either partial or completely insulin deficient. In both cases, leptin markedly lowered blood glucose. Indeed in one study, untreated

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Jessica L Huang, Sharon Lee, Pelle Hoek, Talitha van der Meulen, Richard Van, and Mark O Huising

reported to be decreased in senescent beta cells in type 1 diabetes ( Thompson et al. 2019 ). The fact that UCN3 expression tracks closely with beta cell function across different beta cell states raises the question if UCN3 is merely a marker of mature

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Rijin Xiao, Leah J Hennings, Thomas M Badger, and Frank A Simmen

immune functions ( Yellayi et al. 2002 , Xiao et al. 2005 , Cooke et al. 2006 ). A possible link between Type 1 diabetes, mild or atypical celiac disease, and gastrointestinal lymphoid pathology has been described ( O’Connor et al. 1999 ). Thus

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Zhongxiuzi Gao, Li Zhang, Wenting Xie, Siqi Wang, Xiaorui Bao, Yuli Guo, Houjian Zhang, Qingzhong Hu, Yi Chen, Zeen Wang, Maoqiang Xue, and Guanghui Jin

diseased states, including hyperglycemia and DM. Type 1 diabetes arises from autoimmune-induced β-cell damage ( Bluestone et al . 2010 ), whereas type 2 diabetes develops mainly because of insulin resistance ( Kahn et al . 2014 ). Eventually, insulin

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Ikuko Ueki, Norio Abiru, Kentaro Kawagoe, and Yuji Nagayama

and ameliorates type 1 diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice in a dose-dependent fashion . Journal of Immunology 171 2270 – 2278 . Horie I Abiru N Saitoh O Ichikawa T Iwakura Y Eguchi K Nagayama Y 2010 Distinct role of T helper Type

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Gina L C Yosten, Grant R Kolar, Lauren J Redlinger, and Willis K Samson

a high-affinity transsynaptic receptor pair with signaling capabilities . PNAS 108 12113 – 12118 . ( doi:10.1073/pnas.1019434108 ) Wahren J Kallas A Sima AA 2012 The clinical potential of C-peptide replacement in type 1 diabetes

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Weijuan Shao, Wenjuan Liu, Ping Liang, Zhuolun Song, Odisho Israel, Gerald J Prud’homme, Qinghua Wang, and Tianru Jin

polypeptide (GIP). Although GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists are approved T2D drugs as well, therapeutic effect of GLP-1R agonists or sitagliptin in type 1 diabetes (T1D) is not appreciable ( Pettus et al. 2013 ). We found recently that combined use of GABA

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Nele Friedrich

personalized health care . Nature Reviews. Microbiology 3 431 – 438 . ( doi:10.1038/nrmicro1152 ) Noble JA Erlich HA 2012 Genetics of type 1 diabetes . Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine 2 a007732 . Oliver SG Winson MK Kell DB