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Tianru Jin

). Furthermore, ERK could be involved in β-cat phosphorylation and nuclear translocation ( Ding et al . 2005 ). Insulin and IGF-1 are able to stimulate β-cat nuclear translocation and binding of cat/TCF-4 to the G2 element, a process involving PI3K and a yet to

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Volker Hartenstein

proteins, called prohormones. Similar to other secreted proteins, peptide (pro)hormones are produced in the rough endoplasmic reticulum, processed through the Golgi apparatus, and stored in membrane-bound vesicles. These vesicles, 100–300 nm in size, give

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Ana Patrícia Mateus, Rita A Costa, João C R Cardoso, Karl B Andree, Alicia Estévez, Enric Gisbert, and Deborah M Power

fish triggers the release of hypothalamic, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), which in turn stimulates the synthesis of the prohormone proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary. In the adrenal

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J Kwakkel, H C van Beeren, M T Ackermans, M C Platvoet-ter Schiphorst, E Fliers, W M Wiersinga, and A Boelen

prohormone thyroxine (T 4 ) into the active hormone T 3 by outer-ring deiodination. D2 is expressed in brain, pituitary, skeletal muscle, brown adipose tissue, and placenta and is present as an active dimer in the endoplasmic reticulum ( Kohrle 2000

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Geoffrey J Beckett and John R Arthur

maturation process by modifying the supply of T3 to T3-responsive genes ( Hume et al. 2001 , Kester et al. 2004 ). However, the ontogeny of the deiodinases and their tissue distribution is quite different in rats than humans, thus data obtained from rat

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Aurea Orozco, Carlos Valverde-R, Aurora Olvera, and Carlota García-G

vertebrates, iodine is critical for the synthesis of iodothyronines or thyroid hormones (THs), which, according to the ontogenetic stage of the organism, regulate early and post-embryonic developmental processes and metabolic balance ( Eales 1997 , Valverde

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Paolo Comeglio, Ilaria Cellai, Tommaso Mello, Sandra Filippi, Elena Maneschi, Francesca Corcetto, Chiara Corno, Erica Sarchielli, Annamaria Morelli, Elena Rapizzi, Daniele Bani, Daniele Guasti, Gabriella Barbara Vannelli, Andrea Galli, Luciano Adorini, Mario Maggi, and Linda Vignozzi

SHP , as well as FGF19 ( Fig. 3C ). These effects were mimicked by FXR agonist OCA, but not by INT-777. INT-767 and INT-777 increased mRNA expression of the TGR5-dependent prohormone convertase 1 ( PCSK1 ). A PCSK1 increase was also observed in OCA

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F Aréchiga-Ceballos, E Alvarez-Salas, G Matamoros-Trejo, M I Amaya, C García-Luna, and P de Gortari

whether this process was adequately achieved by overfed animals. Materials and methods Animals All experiments were approved by the local committee of ethics on animal experimentation and complied with the Mexican official norm NOM-062-ZOO-1999 relating to

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Chia-Lei Lin, Lyda Williams, Yoshinori Seki, Harpreet Kaur, Kirsten Hartil, Ariana Fiallo, A Scott Glenn, Ellen B Katz, Maureen J Charron, and Patricia M Vuguin

Comparative Physiology 297 R835 – R843 . ( doi:10.1152/ajpregu.00072.2009 ) Furuta M Yano H Zhou A Rouille Y Holst JJ Carroll R Ravazzola M Orci L Furuta H Steiner DF 1997 Defective prohormone processing and altered pancreatic islet

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Jorge N Artaza and Keith C Norris

considered as a reversible and curable process ( Fallowfield et al . 2006 , Iredale 2007 ) when interventions can be initiated at earlier stages of the disease ( Kisseleva & Brenner 2006 ). Recently, it has been clinically shown, that the administration of