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Paolo Comeglio, Ilaria Cellai, Tommaso Mello, Sandra Filippi, Elena Maneschi, Francesca Corcetto, Chiara Corno, Erica Sarchielli, Annamaria Morelli, Elena Rapizzi, Daniele Bani, Daniele Guasti, Gabriella Barbara Vannelli, Andrea Galli, Luciano Adorini, Mario Maggi, and Linda Vignozzi

development is related to increased size and volume of adipocytes, which are closely related to insulin sensitivity ( Bedossa et al. 2016 ). Bile acids (BAs) are hormone-like signaling molecules that regulate glucose and lipid metabolism as well as energy

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C Ortega-González, L Cardoza, B Coutiño, R Hidalgo, G Arteaga-Troncoso, and A Parra

an improvement in insulin sensitivity. Materials and Methods The study protocol was approved by the Internal Review Board and the Human Ethical Committee of the Instituto Nacional de Perinatología, México City, México and

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Rodrigo Martins Pereira, Kellen Cristina da Cruz Rodrigues, Marcella Ramos Sant’Ana, Guilherme Francisco Peruca, Ana Paula Morelli, Fernando M Simabuco, Adelino S R da Silva, Dennys Esper Cintra, Eduardo Rochete Ropelle, José Rodrigo Pauli, and Leandro Pereira de Moura

oligonucleotide – ASO), it was possible to observe an improvement in insulin sensitivity, a reduction in endogenous glucose production, and, consequently, a reduction in hyperglycemia in obese rodents ( Kumashiro et al. 2013 ). Furthermore, the authors showed

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T J Kowalski, B D Spar, L Markowitz, M Maguire, A Golovko, S Yang, C Farley, J A Cook, G Tetzloff, L Hoos, R A Del Vecchio, T M Kazdoba, M F McCool, J J Hwa, L A Hyde, H Davis, G Vassileva, J A Hedrick, and E L Gustafson

homeostasis in mice that broadly express a transgene encoding murine proNmU. The results of this analysis show that NmU transgenic (Tg) mice maintained on a chow diet are leaner than wild-type mice and hypophagic, and have increased insulin sensitivity, while

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Bethany P Cummings, Ahmed Bettaieb, James L Graham, Kimber Stanhope, Fawaz G Haj, and Peter J Havel

concentrations and marked improvements of insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic patients, making TZDs commonly prescribed for the treatment of type 2 diabetes ( Olefsky 2000 , Sharma & Staels 2007 , Nissen et al . 2008 ). Pioglitazone is a member of the TZD

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F Sentinelli, E Filippi, M G Cavallo, S Romeo, M Fanelli, and M G Baroni

(TZDs), are a class of antidiabetic agents that act by improving insulin sensitivity ( Nolan et al. 1994 , Zierath et al. 1998 ). TZDs exert their antidiabetic actions by various mechanisms: enhancing insulin signaling, increasing glucose

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Sian J S Simpson, Lorna I F Smith, Peter M Jones, and James E Bowe

respond to exogenous insulin administration and lowering of blood glucose; however, none of the CRHR antagonists had any detectable effects on insulin sensitivity ( Fig. 4C and D ). Chronic treatment of non-pregnant female mice with α-helical CRF 9

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L A Santiago, D A Santiago, L C Faustino, A Cordeiro, P C Lisboa, F E Wondisford, C C Pazos-Moura, and T M Ortiga-Carvalho

serum levels of insulin ( Fig. 4 B, P <0.05). The HOMA-IR, calculated as the product between serum insulin and blood glucose, was 60% lower in mice carrying the mutation, suggesting that their insulin sensitivity was increased ( Fig. 4 C, P <0

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Rebecca L Hull, Joshua R Willard, Matthias D Struck, Breanne M Barrow, Gurkirat S Brar, Sofianos Andrikopoulos, and Sakeneh Zraika

were determined using the Mouse Ultrasensitive Insulin ELISA (Alpco, Salem, NH, USA). Data and statistical analyses Data are presented as mean ±  s.e.m. for the number of mice or experiments indicated. Insulin sensitivity was expressed as the

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Beatriz S Amorim, Cintia B Ueta, Beatriz C G Freitas, Renata J Nassif, Cecília Helena de Azevedo Gouveia, Marcelo A Christoffolete, Anselmo S Moriscot, Carmen Lucia Lancelloti, Flávia Llimona, Hermes Vieira Barbeiro, Heraldo Possolo de Souza, Sergio Catanozi, Marisa Passarelli, Marcelo S Aoki, Antonio C Bianco, and Miriam O Ribeiro

). Whereas the GC-24-treated animals still had significant fasting hyperglycemia (96.5 mg/dl), the maximum 30-min glucose peak was ∼30% reduced ( Fig. 2 A). Insulin sensitivity was increased at early time points after insulin administration in GC-24-treated