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Scott M MacKenzie, Deborah Dewar, William Stewart, Robert Fraser, John M C Connell, and Eleanor Davies

production of the sex steroids, which are implicated in certain brain functions. Experimental work on animals has shown that oestrogen has potent neuroprotective properties and is crucial to the development, maintenance and function of normal neural

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John A H Wass and Raghava Reddy

Introduction Much has been written about the effects of growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy in GH-deficient human subjects on growth, body composition, cardiovascular risk factors, bone and muscle development and quality of life. When properly

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Donald Pfaff

human social behaviour. During development in vertebrates ranging from fish to man, GnRH neurons migrate from their birthplace in the olfactory placode into the brain ( Schwanzel-Fukuda & Pfaff 1989 ). A human with damage at the Kallmann’s syndrome

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Marion Walser, Maria Teresa Samà, Ruth Wickelgren, Maria Åberg, Mohammad Bohlooly-Y, Bob Olsson, Jan Törnell, Jörgen Isgaard, and N David Åberg

status in growth hormone deficient patients: a meta-analysis . Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 3 63 . ( doi:10.1186/1477-7525-3-63 ) D'Ercole AJ Ye P 2008 Expanding the mind: insulin-like growth factor I and brain development

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Ekaterine Tskitishvili, Christel Pequeux, Carine Munaut, Renaud Viellevoye, Michelle Nisolle, Agnes Noël, and Jean-Michel Foidart

final development of HIE ( Martinez-Biarge et al . 2013 ). As a consequence, brain hypoxia and ischemia due to systemic hypoxemia and reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF) are primary reasons leading to perinatal HIE ( Grow & Barks 2002 , Ferriero 2004

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Silvia Begliuomini, Elena Lenzi, Filippo Ninni, Elena Casarosa, Sara Merlini, Nicola Pluchino, Valeria Valentino, Stefano Luisi, Michele Luisi, and Andrea R Genazzani

. 2004). BDNF is recognized to play an important role in growth, differentiation, and survival of neurons during brain development ( Bothwell 1995 , Lewin & Barde 1996 ), as well as in adulthood ( Con Over & Yancoupouolos 1997 , Lu & Figurov 1997

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Sarah L Alderman and Mathilakath M Vijayan

described neurogenic regions of the zebrafish brain ( Zupanc et al . 2005 , Grandel et al . 2006 ). In fetal mammals, Hsd11b2 prevents untimely neural differentiation by glucocorticoids and is required for normal brain development ( Diaz et al . 1998

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Christian Hölscher

. Insulin desensitisation can occur in the brain Recent research has shown that insulin desensitisation can also occur in the brain. In several patient database analyses, T2DM has been identified as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson

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Malathi Srinivasan, Paul Mitrani, Gigani Sadhanandan, Catherine Dodds, Suhad Shbeir-ElDika, Shanthie Thamotharan, Hussam Ghanim, Paresh Dandona, Sherin U Devaskar, and Mulchand S Patel

glial proteins by leptin: implications for brain development . Endocrinology 140 2755 – 2762 . Van Assche FA Holemans K Aerts L 2001 Long-term consequences for offspring of diabetes during pregnancy . British Medical Bulletin 60 173 – 182

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Deborah M Sloboda, Timothy J M Moss, Shaofu Li, Stephen G Matthews, John R G Challis, and John P Newnham

maximum brain growth in the ovine fetus ( Dobbing & Sands 1979 ), it could be that both GR and 11βHSD1 play a role in glucocorticoid-related neuronal development and differentiation. The fact that we were unable to detect mRNA levels of 11βHSD2 suggests