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Anne M Houbrechts, Jolien Van houcke, and Veerle M Darras

). Deiodinase type 2 (Dio2) is the most important one for catalyzing the conversion of the prohormone 3,5,3’,5’-tetraiodothyronine (T 4 ) into T 3 , whereas deiodinase type 3 (Dio3) is the main inactivator of T 3 . Deiodinase type 1 (Dio1) can both activate and

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E P S Conceição, E G Moura, A C Manhães, J C Carvalho, J L Nobre, E Oliveira, and P C Lisboa

, Yao et al. 2015 ). Conversely, in an obese rat model, our group evidenced a higher serum level of the prohormone 25(OH)D, which best represents the vitamin D status ( Holick 2009 , Briot et al. 2009 , Glendenning 2015 , Souberbielle et al

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Chia-Lei Lin, Lyda Williams, Yoshinori Seki, Harpreet Kaur, Kirsten Hartil, Ariana Fiallo, A Scott Glenn, Ellen B Katz, Maureen J Charron, and Patricia M Vuguin

Comparative Physiology 297 R835 – R843 . ( doi:10.1152/ajpregu.00072.2009 ) Furuta M Yano H Zhou A Rouille Y Holst JJ Carroll R Ravazzola M Orci L Furuta H Steiner DF 1997 Defective prohormone processing and altered pancreatic islet

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Jiannan Zhang, Xin Li, Yawei Zhou, Lin Cui, Jing Li, Chenlei Wu, Yiping Wan, Juan Li, and Yajun Wang

Introduction It is well documented that in mammals, proopiomelanocortin ( POMC ) gene encodes a large POMC precursor, and the tissue-specific processing of POMC precursor by two prohormone convertases (PC1/3 and PC2) gives rise to several

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Arturo Hernandez and M Elena Martinez

Introduction Testicular development and function are critical for normal spermatogenesis and male reproduction. The growth and maturation of the testes require the timely occurrence of multiple processes of cell proliferation, differentiation

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Marc Schneeberger, Ramon Gomis, and Marc Claret

Introduction The regulation of appetite and body weight is an intricate process controlled by redundant and distributed neural systems that integrate a myriad of cognitive, hedonic, emotional, and homeostatic cues to precisely regulate systemic

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Marco Colella, Valeria Nittoli, Alfonsina Porciello, Immacolata Porreca, Carla Reale, Filomena Russo, Nicola Antonino Russo, Luca Roberto, Francesco Albano, Mario De Felice, Massimo Mallardo, and Concetta Ambrosino

the synthesis of thyroid hormones (THs) or their metabolism/signaling in peripheral organs ( Vanderpump 2011 ). The thyroid secretes the prohormone thyroxine (T 4 ), and to a lesser extent triiodothyronine (T 3 ), which is the most active form. T 3

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Barbara C Fam, Rebecca Sgambellone, Zheng Ruan, Joseph Proietto, and Sofianos Andrikopoulos

assessed ARC gene expression of the orexigenic neuropeptides Npy and Agrp , the anorexigenic pro-hormone Pomc and a marker of leptin insensitivity, Socs3 . Npy ( Fig. 4 A) and Agrp ( Fig. 4 B) mRNA levels were not significantly different between

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Harleen Kaur, Beverly S Muhlhausler, Pamela Su-Lin Sim, Amanda J Page, Hui Li, Maria Nunez-Salces, Georgia S Clarke, Lili Huang, Rebecca L Wilson, Johannes D Veldhuis, Chen Chen, Claire T Roberts, and Kathryn L Gatford

generate pulsatile GH secretion from the anterior pituitary, is one possible candidate. In mouse stomach, the endoproteolytic processing of the ghrelin molecule from its precursor (proghrelin) into mature ghrelin is facilitated by the enzyme prohormone

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Daniel Cuevas-Ramos and Maria Fleseriu

ultimately converted into biologically active aldosterone, cortisol, or androstenedione that is further processed to testosterone in testicles. The zona glomerulosa, fasciculata, and reticularis are the three adrenal cortex histological zones, which