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Ferran Jardí, Michaël R Laurent, Vanessa Dubois, Nari Kim, Rougin Khalil, Brigitte Decallonne, Dirk Vanderschueren, and Frank Claessens

error means as vertical bars. (Data from Hamrick et al . 2006 .) Many of the actions of testosterone in male behavior are mediated by estrogen receptors (ERs). For instance, testosterone acts predominantly as a prohormone for E2 in the

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Riccardo Dore, Luka Levata, Hendrik Lehnert, and Carla Schulz

), possesses a number of putative cleavage sites, suggesting further processing ( Oh-I et al. 2006 ). The N-terminal fragment, named nesfatin-1, was subsequently identified in rat cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN

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Luba Sominsky, Ilvana Ziko, Thai-Xinh Nguyen, Julie Quach, and Sarah J Spencer

was 3% CV, and lower limit of detection was 5 pg/mL. Samples were assayed in duplicate and were all processed in the same assay. RNA isolation, reverse transcription and quantitative real-time PCR To assess whether neonatal overfeeding alters

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Manami Oya, Tetsuya Kitaguchi, Kazuki Harada, Rika Numano, Takahiro Sato, Masayasu Kojima, and Takashi Tsuboi

regulate ghrelin secretion in that narrow window. Ghrelin (amino acids 24–51) is generated by posttranslational processing of the 117 amino acid preproghrelin precursor protein by prohormone convertase 1/3 ( Romero et al . 2010 ). The presence of an eight

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Joshua Columbus, YuTing Chiang, Weijuan Shao, Nina Zhang, Dingyan Wang, Herbert Y Gaisano, Qinghua Wang, David M Irwin, and Tianru Jin

. Immunohistochemistry Mouse pancreatic tissues were processed and paraffin embedded as described earlier ( Wang & Brubaker 2002 ). Triple staining was sequentially performed for insulin, glucagon, and Tcf7l2 . The primary antibodies used were guinea pig anti

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Mone Zaidi, Maria I New, Harry C Blair, Alberta Zallone, Ramkumarie Baliram, Terry F Davies, Christopher Cardozo, James Iqbal, Li Sun, Clifford J Rosen, and Tony Yuen

-adrenal signaling function. Tissue-specific, regulated proteolytic processing of a single large prohormone, proopiomelanocortin (POMC), yields ligands that act on five melanocortin receptors (MC1R – MC5R), including the ACTH receptor (MC2R), which regulates cellular

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Katie Wynne, Sarah Stanley, Barbara McGowan, and Steve Bloom

In order to maintain a stable body weight over a long period of time, we must continually balance food intake with energy expenditure. The hypothalamus was first implicated in this homeostatic process over 50 years ago. Lesioning and stimulation of

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Christoph Schmid, Marian C Neidert, Oliver Tschopp, Lisa Sze, and René L Bernays

are functionally and structurally closely related to insulin. As the C-domain of IGFs is not removed during prohormone processing, mature IGF peptides are single-chain polypeptides. IGF1 consists of 70 amino acids and displays 43% sequence identity to

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Giulia Baldini and Kevin D Phelan

processing of the pro-hormone to α-MSH. Binding of leptin to LepR induces another JAK2-dependent pathway where SH2-Bβ and IRS1 are recruited to activate the PI3K pathway. PI3K generates PIP 3 from PIP 2 at the plasma membrane. PIP 3 recruits and activates

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Stefan Groeneweg, Robin P Peeters, Theo J Visser, and W Edward Visser

Introduction Thyroid hormone (TH) is crucial for the development and metabolism of many tissues. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) controls the production and secretion of TH by the thyroid gland, which predominantly produces the pro-hormone