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Simon C Lee, Christine A Robson-Doucette, and Michael B Wheeler

Introduction Blood glucose homeostasis is maintained by the concerted and opposing actions of the hormones insulin and glucagon. Insulin release from the pancreatic β-cell promotes glucose utilization when blood glucose levels are high, while

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Tetsuhiro Kakimoto, Hirotaka Kimata, Satoshi Iwasaki, Atsushi Fukunari, and Hiroyuki Utsumi

, Yoon et al . 2003 ), suggesting that subjects with insulin resistance develop diabetes with the onset of β-cell dysfunction. Drugs to effectively increase insulin-secreting β-cells have been long-awaited. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), a member of

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S J Brandt, M Kleinert, M H Tschöp, and T D Müller

). For example, following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, gastric banding or sleeve gastronomy, there is an increase in the secretion of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) ( Laferrere 2016 , Meek et al. 2016 , Clemmensen et al. 2017 ), which is known not

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Tianru Jin

Introduction The gene that encodes glucagon, namely the proglucagon gene (gcg), was isolated from rodents and humans in the early 1980s ( Bell et al . 1983 a , b , Lopez et al . 1983 , Heinrich et al . 1984 , Irwin 2001 ). The analysis of gcg

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Jia Fang Wang and David J Hill

. Rabbit-anti-porcine glucagon was a gift from Dr Ungar, Dallas, TX, USA and guinea pig anti-insulin was kindly provided by Dr T J McDonald, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada. Mouse anti-human cytokeratin 20 and monoclonal antibody against

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A L Pierce, H Fukada, and W W Dickhoff

effect of GH on IGF-I production. Insulin, thyroid hormones and low concentrations of glucocorticoids potentiate GH-stimulated IGF-I mRNA expression, whereas glucagon and high concentrations of glucocorticoids inhibit basal or GH-stimulated IGF

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Kook Hwan Kim and Myung-Shik Lee

, hormones secreted from specific organs are important mediators of these adaptive responses through autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine actions. For example, insulin and glucagon are well-known adaptive hormones that control whole-body glucose balance in

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J D Bailey, J G Berardinelli, T E Rocke, and R A Bessen

-fasted concentrations of insulin and glucagon and used western blot analysis to temporally monitor PrP Sc infection of the pancreas. Our second objective was to determine whether prion–strain-specific alterations in body weight are accompanied by changes in feed intake

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Antonella Amato, Sara Baldassano, and Flavia Mulè

Introduction Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP2) is a 33 amino acid proglucagon-derived peptide produced by a subset of enteroendocrine cells (L-cells) residing within the epithelium of the small and large intestine ( Yusta et al . 2000 ). GLP2 is

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Franca S Angeli and Richard P Shannon

worldwide epidemic, there is a growing demand for new treatments that not only control plasma glucose but also reduce macrovascular complications. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is a peptide hormone synthesized in and secreted by enteroendocrine L cells in