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Clare M Reynolds and Mark H Vickers

). Adiponectin Adiponectin modulates a number of metabolic processes, including fatty acid oxidation and glucose homeostasis with a reduced adiponectin expression commonly associated with impaired insulin sensitivity in animal models ( Diez & Iglesias 2003

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Hiranya Pintana, Nattayaporn Apaijai, Nipon Chattipakorn, and Siriporn C Chattipakorn

decreased glucagon secretion and increased insulin sensitivity ( Baggio & Drucker 2007 ). Previous studies on diabetes-related Alzheimer's disease rat models have demonstrated that GLP-1 positively affects learning and memory ( During et al . 2003 , Chen

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M E Cleasby, Q Lau, E Polkinghorne, S A Patel, S J Leslie, N Turner, G J Cooney, A Xu, and E W Kraegen

adiponectin to increase both fatty acid oxidation and glucose disposal into skeletal muscle ( Yamauchi et al . 2002 , Yoon et al . 2006 ) and additionally to improve insulin sensitivity ( Yamauchi et al . 2001 ) has been proposed, effects that have been

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Sebastio Perrini, Luigi Laviola, Marcos C Carreira, Angelo Cignarelli, Annalisa Natalicchio, and Francesco Giorgino

metabolic abnormalities, including reduced insulin sensitivity, impaired oxidative defense, and decreased mitochondrial function ( Dela & Kjaer 2006 ). During aging, the loss of muscle mass and strength is due to progressive atrophy, loss of muscle fibers

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Xiaoqin Shi, Xinyu Li, Yi Hou, Xuemei Cao, Yuyao Zhang, Heng Wang, Hongyin Wang, Chuan Peng, Jibin Li, Qifu Li, Chaodong Wu, and Xiaoqiu Xiao

STZ-O ( Fig. 1F ). Paternal hyperglycemia induced glucose intolerance and reduced insulin sensitivity in male offspring To test whether paternal hyperglycemia altered glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in the offspring, GTTs ( Fig. 2A

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AnneMarie Gagnon, Charlie Foster, Anne Landry, and Alexander Sorisky

insulin sensitivity, and its genetic deletion results in a more favorable metabolic phenotype. Within adipose tissue, IL1β is produced by macrophages and, to a lesser extent, by adipose cells ( Tack et al . 2012 ). IL1β binds to the IL1 type 1 receptor to

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Pongpan Tanajak, Hiranya Pintana, Natthaphat Siri-Angkul, Juthamas Khamseekaew, Nattayaporn Apaijai, Siriporn C Chattipakorn, and Nipon Chattipakorn

), cardiac function, cardiac mitochondrial function and FGF21 signaling pathways in HFD-induced obese-insulin-resistant rats have not been investigated. In this study, we hypothesized that long-term CR and vildagliptin increase insulin sensitivity

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Patricia K Russell, Salvatore Mangiafico, Barbara C Fam, Michele V Clarke, Evelyn S Marin, Sofianos Andrikopoulos, Kristine M Wiren, Jeffrey D Zajac, and Rachel A Davey

hyperleptinaemia ( Lin et al . 2005 ) or increased serum adiponectin and altered energy balance in the absence of any changes in insulin sensitivity ( Fan et al . 2005 ). It is possible that the differences in the metabolic phenotype between the different mouse

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Zhenping Liu, Per Bendix Jeppesen, Søren Gregersen, Lotte Bach Larsen, and Kjeld Hermansen

observations indicate that exposure to leucine may have detrimental effects on both β-cell function and insulin sensitivity. Declaration of interest The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest that could be perceived as prejudicing the

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Melissa F Jackson, Dung Luong, Dor Dor Vang, Dilip K Garikipati, James B Stanton, O Lynne Nelson, and Buel D Rodgers

J Gavrilova O McPherron AC 2009 Myostatin inhibition in muscle, but not adipose tissue, decreases fat mass and improves insulin sensitivity . PLoS ONE 4 e4937 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0004937 . Hamrick MW 2003 Increased bone