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Pauline Campos, Jamie J Walker, and Patrice Mollard

tools that allow the experimenter to see ‘deep inside’ the brain. Fortunately, in parallel to the development of Ca 2+ indicators, instrumentation has been optimized to render Ca 2+ imaging possible in subcortical brain areas. GRIN lenses GRIN

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Marian Joëls

manifest in HPA axis disturbances when combined with multiple exposures to major life events, especially when these take place during development of the HPA axis or during brain development. Altered HPA-axis responsiveness has been described in relation to

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Sandra Zárate, Mariana Astiz, Natalia Magnani, Mercedes Imsen, Florencia Merino, Silvia Álvarez, Analía Reinés, and Adriana Seilicovich

suggested that loss of ovarian hormones precipitates the decline in mitochondrial bioenergetics promoting an accelerated aging phenotype eventually leading to the development of brain hypometabolism, which is clinically observed in menopausal women and

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Shaodong Guo

the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus, which currently afflicts 22 million Americans and over 100 million Chinese ( Alberti et al . 2005 , Cornier et al . 2008 , Roger et al . 2011 ). Importantly, metabolic syndrome is also a significant

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Andrea C Wilson, M Shahriar Salamat, Ryan J Haasl, Kelly M Roche, Anjali Karande, Sivan Vadakkadath Meethal, Ei Terasawa, Richard L Bowen, and Craig S Atwood

supported by the findings that (1) mRNA for LH has been localized to pyramidal neurons of the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of the aging rat brain ( Lee et al. 2004 ), (2) GnRH receptor I (GnRHR I) is localized to extrapituitary cells in the rodent brain

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Dan Li, Yan Ji, Chunlan Zhao, Yapeng Yao, Anlan Yang, Honghong Jin, Yang Chen, Mingjun San, Jing Zhang, Mingjiao Zhang, Luqing Zhang, Xuechao Feng, and Yaowu Zheng

-folds in kidney ( P  = 0.0006) but not in WAT ( Fig. 1C ). Figure 1 Overexpression of OXTR and localization during mammary gland development. Total RNA and protein were isolated from mammary gland (4rd pair), ovary, uterus, brain, heart, kidney and

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Dimitri Novitzky and David K C Cooper

-induced changes in thyroid hormones. Table 1 Conditions in which the euthyroid sick syndrome (ESS) has been described a Acute myocardial infarction, post-cardiac arrest, and low cardiac output related to myocardial dysfunction Autoimmune diseases Brain injury and

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Masaki Kakeyama, Hideko Sone, and Chiharu Tohyama

. 2003 , Odum et al . 2004 , Pinyerd & Zipf 2005 ). On the other hand, peripheral precocious puberty, which is typically observed as early genital and somatic development, occurs independent of brain maturation ( Mitsushima et al . 2003 ), but is not

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Bettina A Ikenasio-Thorpe, Bernhard H Breier, Mark H Vickers, and Mhoyra Fraser

, with no change in food intake. This suggests that exposure to high-fat nutrition determines susceptibility to obesity development, via mechanisms independent of increased food intake. Decreased transport of leptin into the brain has been suggested as

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William L Dees, Jill K Hiney, and Vinod K Srivastava

development and reproduction ( Boyer et al . 1942 , Smith et al . 1944 ), thus, further suggesting this element plays a role in reproductive function. It is well known that Mn crosses the blood–brain barrier by binding to transport systems such as