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Tao Xie, Min Chen, and Lee S Weinstein

. 2003 ). In addition, type 2 diabetics also have increased glucagon (GCG) secretion from pancreatic α-cells and inappropriately increased serum levels of GCG ( Goke 2008 ). Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) and other incretin hormones promote glucose

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Bethany P Cummings, Andrew A Bremer, Timothy J Kieffer, David D'Alessio, and Peter J Havel

hypothesized that dexamethasone may enhance postprandial insulin secretion by increasing meal-stimulated incretin hormone secretion and/or by increasing parasympathetic input to the pancreas. The incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose

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Sayaka Akieda-Asai, Paul-Emile Poleni, Kazuya Hasegawa, and Yukari Date

( Bjorbaek & Kahn 2004 ). Leptin also inhibits AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity in the arcuate nucleus and in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus ( Minokoshi et al . 2004 ). Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1), a gastrointestinal hormone

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Shin-ya Ueda, Takahiro Yoshikawa, Yoshihiro Katsura, Tatsuya Usui, Hayato Nakao, and Shigeo Fujimoto

endocrine organs, including ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY), pancreatic polypeptide (PP), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), cholecystokinin (CCK), and oxyntomodulin ( Huda et al . 2006 , Näslund & Hellstrom 2007 , Wren & Bloom 2007 ). While of these, ghrelin is

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Paige V Bauer and Frank A Duca

. 2015 , Buse et al . 2016 ). Interestingly, this is not the only evidence for a therapeutic role of the gut in diabetes treatment. Over the past decade, incretin-based therapies including glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists and dipeptidyl

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Lars P Klieverik, Ewout Foppen, Mariëtte T Ackermans, Mireille J Serlie, Hans P Sauerwein, Thomas S Scanlan, David K Grandy, Eric Fliers, and Andries Kalsbeek

.c.v. bolus infusion, isotope dilution and blood sampling were conducted to permit measurement of endogenous glucose production (EGP), and the concentration of plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon, corticosterone, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), T 3 and T 4

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Joshua A Kulas, Kendra L Puig, and Colin K Combs

chemiluminescent visualization. Antibodies Antibodies against full-length APP (ab32136), BACE2 (ab8025), glucagon (ab10988), IDE (ab32216) and the insulin receptor (ab69508) were purchased from Abcam. Antibodies against insulin (L6B10), p-GSK3β (D3A4), GSK3

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Sandra Fontanière, Bertrand Duvillié, Raphaël Scharfmann, Christine Carreira, Zhao-Qi Wang, and Chang-Xian Zhang

experiments were guinea pig anti-insulin (1:500, Dako, Capintaria, CA, USA), rabbit anti-glucagon (1:600, NovoCastra, Milton Keynes, UK), anti-mucin-1 (1:200, Neomarkers, Fremont, CA, USA) and goat anti-menin (C19, 1:500). For cultured pancreatic rudiments, 4

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Li Ding, Yue Yin, Lingling Han, Yin Li, Jing Zhao, and Weizhen Zhang

Introduction Pancreatic islet contains four major types of endocrine cells, including α, β, δ and PP cells, which secret glucagon, insulin, somatostatin and pancreatic polypeptide, respectively. All types of pancreatic endocrine cells arise

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Birgitte N Friedrichsen, Nicole Neubauer, Ying C Lee, Vivian K Gram, Niels Blume, Jacob S Petersen, Jens H Nielsen, and Annette Møldrup

Introduction The intestinal incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide-1 (7–36) amide (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) are released in response to fat and carbohydrate ingestion. Both peptides act to augment