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Melissa F Jackson, Dung Luong, Dor Dor Vang, Dilip K Garikipati, James B Stanton, O Lynne Nelson, and Buel D Rodgers

J Gavrilova O McPherron AC 2009 Myostatin inhibition in muscle, but not adipose tissue, decreases fat mass and improves insulin sensitivity . PLoS ONE 4 e4937 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0004937 . Hamrick MW 2003 Increased bone

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Zhenping Liu, Per Bendix Jeppesen, Søren Gregersen, Lotte Bach Larsen, and Kjeld Hermansen

observations indicate that exposure to leucine may have detrimental effects on both β-cell function and insulin sensitivity. Declaration of interest The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest that could be perceived as prejudicing the

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Mariana Renovato Martins, Anatalia Kutianski Gonzalez Vieira, Érica Patrícia Garcia de Souza, and Anibal Sanchez Moura

disturbances, and diminished peripheral insulin sensitivity. Materials and Methods Animals and treatments Virgin female Swiss mice were time crossed at 3 months of age. During pregnancy, they were singly housed under standard conditions. After birth, litters

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Peter J Simons, Petra S van den Pangaart, Johannes M F G Aerts, and Louis Boon

activate different signaling pathways and exert different functions ( Trujillo & Scherer 2005 ). Importantly, the ratio of HMW:total adiponectin, but not absolute levels of adiponectin, has been proposed to correlate with insulin sensitivity in mice and

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Liselotte Fransson, Stephanie Franzén, Victoria Rosengren, Petra Wolbert, Åke Sjöholm, and Henrik Ortsäter

as postprandial blood glucose fell to levels similar to those seen in vehicle-treated animals ( Fig. 2 A and B). In addition, insulin sensitivity, measured via an IPinsTT after 3 weeks without corticosterone, was normalized ( Fig. 2 D). The

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F González, N S Rote, J Minium, and J P Kirwan

a 2-h value of 140–199 mg/dl, and type 2 diabetes mellitus defined as a 2-h value of 200 mg/dl or greater ( Modan et al. 1989 ). Insulin sensitivity was estimated by IS HOMA by the following formula ( Matthews et al. 1985 ): fasting glucose

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Sophie M T Wehrens, Shelagh M Hampton, Rebecca E Finn, and Debra J Skene

associated with CVD (e.g. Taheri et al . 2004 , Gangwisch et al . 2006 ). In agreement with these reports, laboratory studies have demonstrated decreased glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity after partial sleep deprivation, restricting sleep to

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Abigail Wolf Greenstein, Neena Majumdar, Peng Yang, Papasani V Subbaiah, Rhonda D Kineman, and Jose Cordoba-Chacon

, TZDs increase systemic insulin sensitivity, which in turn reduces insulin demands. These changes are associated with an increase in adiponectin production by the adipocyte. Adiponectin in turn promotes hepatic fatty acid oxidation via phosphorylation of

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Susan Gray, Barbara S Stonestreet, Shanthie Thamotharan, Grazyna B Sadowska, Molly Daood, Jon Watchko, and Sherin U Devaskar

in fetal skeletal muscle GLUT 1 and GLUT 4 concentrations most likely reflects a compensatory response to increase substrate availability/utilization and heightened fetal insulin sensitivity. However, in previous work when fetal growth restriction

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Helena A Walz, Linda Härndahl, Nils Wierup, Emilia Zmuda-Trzebiatowska, Fredrik Svennelid, Vincent C Manganiello, Thorkil Ploug, Frank Sundler, Eva Degerman, Bo Ahrén, and Lena Stenson Holst

reduced insulin sensitivity. We used a mouse model that exhibits modest, 2-fold overexpression of the cAMP-degenerating enzyme PDE3B in β-cells. Previous control experiments, conducted by us ( Härndahl et al. 2002 ), demonstrate the direct effect of