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Neil Tanday, Peter R Flatt, Nigel Irwin, and R Charlotte Moffett

incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), in T2DM have been linked to direct positive effects at the level of the endocrine pancreas. This includes, but not limited to, potentiation of glucose

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Mohamed Lotfy, Jaipaul Singh, Hameed Rashed, Saeed Tariq, Erika Zilahi, and Ernest Adeghate

endocrine and an exocrine system with much interaction between the two parts ( Shetzline & Liddle 2002 ). The GI tract secretes a number of hormones including glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1; Drucker 2003 b

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Astrid C Hauge-Evans, James Bowe, Zara J Franklin, Zoheb Hassan, and Peter M Jones

identified (reviewed by Moller et al . (2003) ). In pancreatic islets, receptors have been identified on both α- and β-cells ( Strowski et al . 2000 , Cejvan et al . 2003 ) and exogenously administered SST inhibits both insulin and glucagon secretion

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A L Pierce, M Shimizu, L Felli, P Swanson, and W W Dickhoff

the primary hormonal regulators of liver IGFBP-1 production, other anabolic and catabolic hormones also play roles. In general, growth hormone (GH) decreases and glucagon increases hepatocyte IGFBP-1 mRNA levels ( Denver & Nicoll 1994 , Kachra et al

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Jennifer S ten Kulve, Dick J Veltman, Liselotte van Bloemendaal, Paul F C Groot, Henricus G Ruhé, Frederik Barkhof, Michaela Diamant, and Richard G Ijzerman

, Cummings 2013 ), except for glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1). GLP1 is a gut-derived hormone, mainly known for its glucose-lowering effects ( Kreymann et al. 1987 , Mojsov et al. 1987 ); however, numerous preclinical and clinical studies have shown that

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Amy R Quinn, Cynthia L Blanco, Carla Perego, Giovanna Finzi, Stefano La Rosa, Carlo Capella, Rodolfo Guardado-Mendoza, Francesca Casiraghi, Amalia Gastaldelli, Marney Johnson, Edward J Dick Jr, and Franco Folli

both types of this disease has been linked to loss of β-cell mass, impaired β-cell function, as well as increased glucagon secretion. The potential for β-cell regeneration in humans is an area under active investigation ( Dhawan et al . 2007 , Karaca

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Angela S Bang, Steven G Soule, Tim G Yandle, A Mark Richards, and Chris J Pemberton

) or glucose administration alone ( Shiiya et al. 2002 ). However, the in vivo physiological contributions of putative ghrelin secretagogues, including insulin, glucagon and leptin remain unclear or controversial ( Korbonits et al. 2004 , Soule

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Sandra K Szlapinski, Anthony A Botros, Sarah Donegan, Renee T King, Gabrielle Retta, Brenda J Strutt, and David J Hill

novel postpartum data in this study ( Szlapinski et al. 2019 ). Following the IPGTT, maternal (F1) blood was collected via cardiac puncture in order to quantify serum insulin, glucagon, and PD-L1 quantified using an Ultra Sensitive Mouse Insulin ELISA

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Sehee Kim, Minho Moon, and Seungjoon Park

pharmacological intervention of MMP-3 and microglial activation could be considered as plausible candidates for neuroprotective agents in PD. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), an endogenous 30-amino acid gut–brain peptide hormone, is synthesized from proglucagon

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Weiwei Xu, Jamie Morford, and Franck Mauvais-Jarvis

induces intra-islet glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) production and enhances beta cell survival . Diabetologia 54 2067 – 2076 . ( https://doi.org/10.1007/s00125-011-2181-x ) 10.1007/s00125-011-2181-x 21567300 Lubahn DB Joseph DR Sullivan PM Willard