Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are secreted ligands that belong to the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily. BMP7 has been reported to play a role in reversing obesity and regulating appetite in the hypothalamus. Whether BMP9 plays a central role in regulating glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity remains unclear. Here, we investigated the impact of central BMP9 signaling and possible route of transmission. We performed intracerebroventricular (ICV) surgery and injected adenovirus expressing BMP9 (Ad-BMP9) into the cerebral ventricle of mice. Metabolic analysis, hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp test, and analysis of phosphatidylinositol 3, 4, 5- trisphosphate (PIP3) formation were then performed. Real-time PCR and western blotting were performed to detect gene expression and potential pathways involved. We found that hypothalamic BMP9 expression was downregulated in obese and insulin-resistant mice. Overexpression of BMP9 in the mediobasal hypothalamus reduced food intake, body weight, and blood glucose level, and elevated the energy expenditure in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Importantly, central treatment with BMP9 improved hepatic insulin resistance (IR) and inhibited hepatic glucose production in HFD-fed mice. ICV BMP9-induced increase in hepatic insulin sensitivity and related metabolic effects were blocked by ICV injection of rapamycin, an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. In addition, ICV BMP9 promoted the ability of insulin to activate the insulin receptor / phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) / Akt pathway in the hypothalamus. Thus, this study provides insights into the potential mechanism by which central BMP9 ameliorates hepatic glucose metabolism and IR via activating the mTOR/PI3K/Akt pathway in the hypothalamus.
Yirui He, Cheng Zhang, Yong Luo, Jinhua Chen, Mengliu Yang, Ling Li, Harvest F Gu, Gangyi Yang, and Xianxiang Zhang
M Fasshauer, S Kralisch, M Klier, U Lossner, M Bluher, J Klein, and R Paschke
Various cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha, growth hormone (GH) and interleukin (IL)-6, induce insulin resistance. Recently, it was demonstrated that induction of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)-3 by TNFalpha and GH is an important mechanism by which these cytokines impair insulin sensitivity. The current study investigated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes whether TNFalpha and GH also upregulate SOCS-1 and SOCS-6, which have both been shown to inhibit insulin signaling potently, and whether IL-6 might alter synthesis of SOCS-1, -3 and -6. Interestingly, 10 ng/ml TNFalpha, 500 ng/ml GH and 30 ng/ml IL-6 induced SOCS-1 mRNA time-dependently with maximal stimulation detectable after 8 h of TNFalpha and 1 h of GH and IL-6 addition respectively. Furthermore, TNFalpha and GH caused sustained upregulation of SOCS-1 for up to 24 h, whereas stimulation by IL-6 was only transient, with SOCS-1 mRNA returning to basal levels 2 h after effector addition. Induction of SOCS-1 was dose-dependent, and significant stimulation was detectable at concentrations as low as 3 ng/ml TNFalpha, 50 ng/ml GH and 10 ng/ml IL-6. Furthermore, stimulation experiments and studies using pharmacologic inhibitors suggested that the positive effect of TNFalpha, GH and IL-6 on SOCS-1 mRNA is, at least in part, mediated by Janus kinase (Jak) 2. Finally, SOCS-3 expression was dose- and time-dependently induced by IL-6, at least in part via Jak2, but none of the cytokines affected SOCS-6 expression. Taken together, our results show a differential regulation of SOCS mRNA by insulin resistance-inducing hormones, and suggest that SOCS-1, as well as SOCS-3, may be an important intracellular mediator of insulin resistance in fat cells and a potential pharmacologic target for the treatment of impaired insulin sensitivity.
A. Faulkner and H. T. Pollock
Glucose utilization and production and changes in concentrations of plasma metabolites were studied in lactating and non-lactating sheep in response to three levels of insulin infusion whilst maintaining euglycaemia. Glucose utilization and production responded to insulin infusion similarly in both lactating and non-lactating ewes but, as circulating concentrations of insulin were lower in lactating animals, these parameters appeared more sensitive to plasma concentrations of insulin in lactating sheep. Changes in plasma concentrations of glycerol and free fatty acids during lactation indicated reduced sensitivity to insulin in adipose tissue and changes in plasma concentrations of amino acids were also less during lactation, suggesting reduced sensitivity of protein synthesis to insulin. Changes in plasma concentrations of urea and β-hydroxybutyrate during lactation were similar to those in non-lactating animals, indicating similar insulin sensitivity of hepatic metabolism. It is concluded that during lactation ovine adipose tissue and muscle are more resistant to increased concentrations of insulin but that the sensitivity of the sheep liver is unchanged or increased. The rate of removal of insulin from the circulation was higher in lactating animals.
Journal of Endocrinology (1990) 124, 59–66
K Walder, A Filippis, S Clark, P Zimmet, and GR Collier
Leptin is secreted from adipose tissue, and is thought to act as a 'lipostat', signalling the body fat levels to the hypothalamus resulting in adjustments to food intake and energy expenditure to maintain body weight homeostasis. In addition, plasma leptin concentrations have been shown to be related to insulin sensitivity independent of body fat content, suggesting that the hyperleptinemia found in obesity could contribute to the insulin resistance. We investigated the effects of leptin on insulin binding by isolated adipocytes. Adipocytes isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats exhibited a dose-dependent reduction in the uptake of 125I-labelled insulin when incubated with various concentrations of exogenous leptin. For example, addition of 50 nM leptin reduced total insulin binding in isolated adipocytes by 19% (P < 0.05). Analysis of displacement curve binding data suggested that leptin reduced maximal insulin binding in a dose-dependent manner, but had no significant effect on the affinity of insulin for its binding site. We conclude that leptin directly inhibited insulin binding by adipocytes, and the role of leptin in the development of insulin resistance in obese individuals requires further investigation.
Andrea Anedda, Eduardo Rial, and M Mar González-Barroso
Metformin is a drug widely used to treat type 2 diabetes. It enhances insulin sensitivity by improving glucose utilization in tissues like liver or muscle. Metformin inhibits respiration, and the decrease in cellular energy activates the AMP-activated protein kinase that in turn switches on catabolic pathways. Moreover, metformin increases lipolysis and β-oxidation in white adipose tissue, thereby reducing the triglyceride stores. The uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are transporters that lower the efficiency of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. UCP2 is thought to protect against oxidative stress although, alternatively, it could play an energy dissipation role. The aim of this work was to analyse the involvement of UCP2 on the effects of metformin in white adipocytes. We studied the effect of this drug in differentiating 3T3-L1 adipocytes and found that metformin causes oxidative stress since it increases the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lowers the aconitase activity. Variations in UCP2 protein levels parallel those of ROS. Metformin also increases lipolysis in these cells although only when the levels of ROS and UCP2 have decreased. Hence, UCP2 does not appear to be needed to facilitate fatty acid oxidation. Furthermore, treatment of C57BL/6 mice with metformin also augmented the levels of UCP2 in epididymal white adipose tissue. We conclude that metformin treatment leads to the overexpression of UCP2 in adipocytes to minimize the oxidative stress that is probably due to the inhibition of respiration caused by the drug.
V Sánchez-Margalet, E Ramos, J Mateo, J Oliván, R Pérez-Cano, and R Goberna
Pancreastatin is a regulatory peptide known to inhibit insulin secretion and insulin action with a glycogenolytic effect in the liver. This peptide is present in and secreted by many endocrine and chromaffin cells. Abnormalities of glucose, insulin and lipoprotein metabolism are common in patients with hypertension, as well as their first-degree relatives. We have recently studied a group of non-obese hypertensive subjects in which pancreastatin-like levels were increased compared with controls, and correlated with norepinephrine levels. We hypothesized that pancreastatin alongside the sympathoadrenal system might have a part in the insulin resistance of these patients, and this metabolic syndrome could play a role in the pathogenesis and complications of hypertension. In this article, we studied the normotensive offspring of these non-obese hypertensive patients and looked for metabolic abnormalities as well as plasma pancreastatin, glucagon and catecholamine levels. The subjects were separated into two groups: (1) offspring from non-insulin-resistant patients and (2) offspring from insulin-resistant patients. We found that after an intravenous glucose load, offspring from insulin-resistant patients were already hyperinsulinemic, although glucose clearance was normal, suggesting an early alteration in insulin sensitivity, whereas pancreastatin and catecholamine levels were normal compared with matched controls. However, offspring from non-insulin-resistant patients had no differences with controls. These results suggest that pancreastatin and catecholamines may not play an important role in triggering insulin resistance, although they may be important once the syndrome is established.
Journal of Endocrinology (1997) 153, 313–318
Xinyu Qi, Chuyu Yun, Baoying Liao, Jie Qiao, and Yanli Pang
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex syndrome involving both endocrine and metabolic disorders. Gut microbiota and the intestinal immune factor IL-22 play an important role in the pathogenesis of PCOS. However, the therapeutic role of IL-22 in high androgen-induced PCOS mice is not clear. We aimed to determine the therapeutic effects of IL-22 on the DHEA-induced PCOS mouse model and to explore the possible mechanism of IL-22 in regulating hyperandrogenism-associated PCOS. Insulin resistance levels and ovarian functions were investigated in DHEA-induced PCOS mice with or without additional IL-22 treatment. We found that IL-22 could reverse insulin resistance, disturbed estrous cycle, abnormal ovary morphology, and decreased embryo number in DHEA mice. Mechanistically, IL-22 upregulated the browning of white adipose tissue in DHEA mice. This study demonstrated that IL-22-associated browning of white adipose tissue regulated insulin sensitivity and ovarian functions in PCOS, suggesting that IL-22 may be of value for the treatment of PCOS with a hyperandrogenism phenotype.
A Shirakami, T Toyonaga, K Tsuruzoe, T Shirotani, K Matsumoto, K Yoshizato, J Kawashima, Y Hirashima, N Miyamura, CR Kahn, and E Araki
Insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) gene polymorphisms have been identified in type 2 diabetic patients; however, it is unclear how such polymorphisms contribute to the development of diabetes. Here we introduced obesity in heterozygous IRS-1 knockout (IRS-1(+/-)) mice by gold-thioglucose (GTG) injection and studied the impact of reduced IRS-1 expression on obesity-linked insulin resistance. GTG injection resulted in approximately 30% weight gain in IRS-1(+/-) and wild type (WT) mice, compared with saline-injected controls. There was no difference in insulin sensitivity between lean IRS-1(+/-) and lean WT. Elevated fasting insulin levels but no change in fasting glucose were noted in obese IRS-1(+/-) and WT compared with the respective lean controls. Importantly, fasting insulin in obese IRS-1(+/-) was 1.5-fold higher (P<0.05) than in obese WT, and an insulin tolerance test showed a profound insulin resistance in obese IRS-1(+/-) compared with obese WT. The islets of obese IRS-1(+/-) were 1.4-fold larger than those of obese WT. The expression of insulin receptor and IRS-1 and IRS-2 was decreased in obese IRS-1(+/-), which could in part explain the profound insulin resistance in these mice. Our results suggest that IRS-1 is the suspected gene for type 2 diabetes and its polymorphisms could worsen insulin resistance in the presence of other additional factors, such as obesity.
The obese gene product, leptin, plays a central role in food intake and energy metabolism. The physiological roles of leptin in human bodily function have been broadened over the past decade since leptin was first discovered in 1994. Evidence has suggested that leptin plays a specific role in the intricate cascade of cardiovascular events, in addition to its well-established metabolic effects. Leptin, a hormone linking adiposity and central nervous circuits to reduce appetite and enhance energy expenditure, has been shown to increase overall sympathetic nerve activity, facilitate glucose utilization and improve insulin sensitivity. In addition, leptin is capable of regulating cardiac and vascular contractility through a local nitric oxide-dependent mechanism. However, elevated plasma leptin levels or hyperleptinemia, have been demonstrated to correlate with hyperphagia, insulin resistance and other markers of the metabolic syndrome including obesity, hyperlipidemia and hypertension, independent of total adiposity. Elevated plasma leptin levels may be an independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. Although mechanisms leading to hyperleptinemia have not been well described, factors such as increased food intake and insulin resistance have been shown to rapidly enhance plasma leptin levels and subsequently tissue leptin resistance. These findings have prompted the speculation that leptin in the physiological range may serve as a physiological regulator of cardiovascular function whereas elevated plasma leptin levels may act as a pathophysiological trigger and/or marker for cardiovascular diseases due to tissue leptin resistance.
PM Jamieson, MJ Nyirenda, BR Walker, KE Chapman, and Seckl JR
In vitro, 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD-1) catalyses the interconversion of active corticosterone and inert 11-dehydrocorticosterone. 11beta-HSD-1 is highly expressed in liver, where the reaction direction is 11beta-reduction, thus potentially increasing intrahepatic active glucocorticoid levels. Inhibition of 11beta-HSD-1 increases insulin sensitivity in humans in vivo suggesting that hepatic 11beta-HSD-1 plays a role in the maintenance or control of key glucocorticoid-regulated metabolic functions. We have selectively repressed hepatic 11beta-HSD-1 in rats by oestradiol administration for 42 days. This nearly completely repressed hepatic 11beta-HSD-1 mRNA expression and enzyme activity and reduced expression of hepatic glucocorticoid-inducible genes including phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), the rate-limiting step in gluconeogenesis. Similar effects were seen after 3 weeks of oestradiol treatment. To examine whether this was due to any direct effect of oestradiol upon PEPCK, the experiment was repeated in adrenalectomised rats+/-glucocorticoid replacement. In adrenalectomised rats, oestradiol did not attenuate hepatic PEPCK, whilst glucocorticoid replacement restored this action. Oestradiol did not alter hepatic metabolism of corticosterone by pathways other than 11beta-HSD-1. These data suggest 11beta-HSD-1 plays an important role in maintaining expression of key glucocorticoid-regulated hepatic transcripts. Enzyme inhibition may provide a useful therapeutic target for manipulating glucose homeostasis.