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William H T Smith, R Unnikrishnan Nair, Dawn Adamson, Mark T Kearney, Stephen G Ball, and Anthony J Balmforth

cardiovascular disease ( Wright et al. 1970 , Orme et al. 1998 ). The main structural cardiac abnormality is left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) (for review see Colao et al. (2001 a )). LVH in acromegaly is characterised by both myocyte hypertrophy and a

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Kimberley C W Wang, Kimberley J Botting, Song Zhang, I Caroline McMillen, Doug A Brooks, and Janna L Morrison

. 2007 a , Jonker & Louey 2016 ). These binucleated cardiomyocytes do not proliferate and subsequent increases in cardiac mass occur via hypertrophy of binucleated or polyploid cardiomyocytes ( Smolich et al . 1989 , Lumbers et al . 2005 , Botting

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Rachel V Richardson, Emma J Batchen, Adrian J W Thomson, Rowan Darroch, Xinlu Pan, Eva A Rog-Zielinska, Wiktoria Wyrzykowska, Kathleen Scullion, Emad A S Al-Dujaili, Mary E Diaz, Carmel M Moran, Christopher J Kenyon, Gillian A Gray, and Karen E Chapman

(VSM) MR knockout is protective against age-related hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy, it has negligible effect on blood pressure and heart size in young mice (<7 months of age) ( McCurley et al . 2012 ). The physiological role of GR in the

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Pongpan Tanajak, Siriporn C Chattipakorn, and Nipon Chattipakorn

cascade ( Joki et al . 2015 ). Recent studies found that FGF21 protects against isoproterenol (ISO) induced cardiac hypertrophy by activating anti-oxidative pathways ( Planavila et al . 2013 , 2014 ) and promoting FAO ( Planavila et al . 2013 ). FGF21

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Francisco Altamirano, César Oyarce, Patricio Silva, Marcela Toyos, Carlos Wilson, Sergio Lavandero, Per Uhlén, and Manuel Estrada

muscle mass ( Evans 2004 ). Exogenously administrated, elevated testosterone concentrations induce cardiac hypertrophy in vitro ( Marsh et al . 1998 ) and in vivo ( Cabral et al . 1988 , Malhotra et al . 1990 , Nahrendorf et al . 2003 ), but the

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Fausto Bogazzi, Francesco Raggi, Federica Ultimieri, Dania Russo, Antonella Manariti, Aldo D’Alessio, Paolo Viacava, Giovanni Fanelli, Maurizio Gasperi, Luigi Bartalena, and Enio Martino

Introduction Cardiac hypertrophy is a common finding of systemic manifestations of growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-I (GH/IGF-1) excess in acromegalic patients ( Lie & Grossman 1980 , Saccà et al. 1994 , Melmed 2006

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Sangeeta Maity, Dipak Kar, Kakali De, Vivek Chander, and Arun Bandyopadhyay

, dysfunction ultimately leading to heart failure. Cardiac hypertrophy ensuing hyperthyroidism is due to the hyper-dynamic circulatory system that results from an enhanced metabolic rate, increased blood volume, and decreased peripheral resistance, and all these

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Sung Wook Park, Shawna D Persaud, Stanislas Ogokeh, Tatyana A Meyers, DeWayne Townsend, and Li-Na Wei

/or persistent stimulation by catecholamines, e.g. isoproterenol (ISO) – a synthetic agonist of β-ARs, causes decompensation and left ventricular remodeling marked by cell death, inflammation, fibrosis, hypertrophy and cardiac dilation, leading to arrhythmias and

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Ricardo Rodríguez-Calvo, Josefa Girona, Josep M Alegret, Alba Bosquet, Daiana Ibarretxe, and Lluís Masana

atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Here, we will review the current knowledge of FABP4 in HF and CVD as well as the molecular basis by which this protein participates in the regulation of cardiac function. Obesity as a risk factor for heart

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Nattayaporn Apaijai, Tharnwimol Inthachai, Suree Lekawanvijit, Siriporn C Chattipakorn, and Nipon Chattipakorn

. 2013 , 2014 , Apaijai et al . 2014 ). Moreover, vildagliptin reduced myocyte hypertrophy and perivascular and cardiac fibrosis in isoproterenol ( Miyoshi et al . 2014 ), and transverse aortic constriction-induced heart failure ( Takahashi et al