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Craig S Nunemaker, H Grace Chung, Gretchen M Verrilli, Kathryn L Corbin, Aditi Upadhye, and Poonam R Sharma

Boni-Schnetzler M Ehses JA Faulenbach M Donath MY 2008 Insulitis in type 2 diabetes . Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism 10 ( Suppl 4 ) 201 – 204 . ( doi:10.1111/j.1463-1326.2008.00950.x ) Burke SJ Lu D Sparer TE Masi T Goff MR

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A K Katakam, G Chipitsyna, Q Gong, A R Vancha, J Gabbeta, and H A Arafat

high glucose and glucosamine-responsive elements in the OPN promoter ( Asaumi et al. 2003 ). β-Cell destructive insulitis in type I ( Rabinovitch 1998 ) and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced experimental diabetes ( Lukic et al. 1998 , Rydgren

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L Zhao, Z Li, M Kullin, L A H Borg, and F A Karlsson

) 51 –57. Atkinson MA , Maclaren NK & Luchetta R 1990 Insulitis and diabetes in NOD mice reduced by prophylactic insulin therapy. Diabetes 39 933 –937. Bergsten P , Gylfe E, Wesslén N

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Elisabet Estil.les, Noèlia Téllez, Joan Soler, and Eduard Montanya

inhibit the expression of IGFs in several cell types ( Ilvemarski et al . 1993 , Martin et al . 1993 , Lin et al . 1994 ), and a reduction in IGF2 immunoreactivity has been found in islet cells undergoing insulitis, suggesting that cytokines may

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C Giuliani, M Saji, I Bucci, G Fiore, M Liberatore, D S Singer, F Monaco, L D Kohn, and G Napolitano

-expression of TLR-3 signals to both islet cells and thyrocytes in insulitis/diabetes and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis are striking, given the importance of insulin/IGF-I to regulate islet- and thyroid cell-specific functions. We are investigating whether MHC class I

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Maria Petropavlovskaia, Julia Makhlin, John Sampalis, and Lawrence Rosenberg

-cells from inflammatory, cytokine-induced cell death, both in vitro and in vivo ( Choi et al. 2004 ). Transgenic mice overexpressing IL-6 in β cells may or may not develop insulitis but they do not develop pancreatitis or diabetes ( Campbell et al

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Frank H Bloomfield

insulitis in the non-obese diabetic mouse . Diabetologia 31 322 – 328 . Rhodes CJ 2005 Type 2 diabetes-a matter of beta-cell life and death? Science 307 380 – 384 . ( https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1104345 ) 15662003 10.1126/science

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Neil Tanday, Peter R Flatt, Nigel Irwin, and R Charlotte Moffett

2009 The role of inflammation in insulitis and β-cell loss in type 1 diabetes . Nature Reviews: Endocrinology 5 219 – 226 . ( https://doi.org/10.1038/nrendo.2009.21 ) Farilla L Bulotta A Hirshberg B Li Calzi S Khoury N Noushmehr H

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José Edgar Nicoletti-Carvalho, Tatiane C Araújo Nogueira, Renata Gorjão, Carla Rodrigues Bromati, Tatiana S Yamanaka, Antonio Carlos Boschero, Licio Augusto Velloso, Rui Curi, Gabriel Forato Anhê, and Silvana Bordin

-cells exposed to long-chain saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids . Journal of Endocrinology 197 553 – 563 . DiCosmo BF Picarella D Flavell RA 1994 Local production of human IL-6 promotes insulitis but retards the onset of insulin

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Hamzeh Karimkhanloo, Stacey N Keenan, Emily W Sun, David A Wattchow, Damien J Keating, Magdalene K Montgomery, and Matthew J Watt

– 299 73 . ( https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M110.128694 ) Hsing LC Kirk EA Mcmillen TS Hsiao SH Caldwell M Houston B Rudensky AY Leboeuf RC 2010 Roles for cathepsins S, L, and B in insulitis and diabetes in the NOD mouse . Journal of