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Ting Chen, Zhiguo Tang, Aifen Yan, Wensheng Li, and Haoran Lin

and randomly in fish brain than in mammalian brain. The Ghsr mRNA expression during fish embryonic and larval development was also examined, and it was shown that the appearance and expression profile of the two gpGHSR transcripts is different during

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Jing Xie, Wei-Qing Wang, Ting-Xi Liu, Min Deng, and Guang Ning

CHGA at early stages of development has remained elusive because of the invisibility of the embryogenesis in mammals. Several animal models (chicken, bovine, and rat) have been employed for studying the developmental and anatomic distribution of chga

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Karla J Suchacki, Fiona Roberts, Andrea Lovdel, Colin Farquharson, Nik M Morton, Vicky E MacRae, and William P Cawthorn

; energy expenditure by muscle and insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue, muscle and liver. Furthermore, OCN favours hippocampal development in offspring; brain function in adults and male fertility by stimulating testosterone synthesis in Leydig cells of

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Luba Sominsky, Christine L Jasoni, Hannah R Twigg, and Sarah J Spencer

development that are particularly vulnerable to environmental influence. However, it is now clear that the hypothalamus, and, indeed, the brain as a whole, continues to change throughout life and into old age. In addition to the two canonical sites of adult

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A J Forhead and A L Fowden

immediately at birth. The important role of thyroid hormones in brain development is not considered here as this has been reviewed extensively in recent years ( Horn & Heuer 2010 , Patel et al . 2011 , Puig-Domingo & Vila 2013 , Stenzel & Huttner 2013

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Natallia Shved, Giorgi Berishvili, Helena D'Cotta, Jean-François Baroiller, Helmut Segner, Elisabeth Eppler, and Manfred Reinecke

( Vong et al . 2003 , Biga et al . 2004 ). Among the non-mammalian vertebrate classes, bony fish are the most studied with respect to IGF-I ( Duan 1998 , Plisetskaya 1998 , Wood et al . 2005 , Reinecke 2006 ) mainly due to their unique development

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Sara Della Torre, Gianpaolo Rando, Clara Meda, Paolo Ciana, Luisa Ottobrini, and Adriana Maggi

sexual differentiation of reproductive tissues, including the brain ( Phoenix et al. 1959 , Pang et al. 1979 , Tobet et al. 1986 , Korach et al. 1988 , Greco et al. 1991 , Rissman et al. 1997 , Nielsen et al. 2000 , Albrecht et al

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M G Gnanalingham, A Mostyn, J Wang, R Webb, D H Keisler, N Raver, M C Alves-Guerra, C Pecqueur, B Miroux, T Stephenson, and M E Symonds

al. 2000 ). In the newborn sheep, plasma leptin concentrations decline during the immediate 6 h after birth to then increase up to 7 days of age ( Bispham et al. 2002 ). These temporal changes in leptin coincide with development of the hypothalamic

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A J Conley, R M Bernstein, and A D Nguyen

. 2009 ), it has been proposed that the evolution of adrenarche extended the maturation of the human brain ( Campbell 2011 ). If this is true, then correlations between the onset (adrenarche) of adrenal androgen secretion and brain development would be

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V Squicciarini, R Riquelme, K Wilsterman, G E Bentley, and H E Lara

Introduction RFamide-related peptide (also known as gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone, GnIH) is a neuropeptide that is present in human brain and gonads and is known to act on human ovary ( Tsutsui et al . 2007 , Tsutsui 2009 , Ubuka et al