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F Dong, X Zhang, X Yang, L B Esberg, H Yang, Z Zhang, B Culver, and J Ren

each year. Both clinical and experimental data have demonstrated that uncorrected obesity leads to cardiac hypertrophy and compromised ventricular function such as reduced myocardial contractility and diastolic compliance ( Sowers 1998 , Ren et al

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Seth A Reini, Garima Dutta, Charles E Wood, and Maureen Keller-Wood

activation if both act at GRE to induce genes responsible for cardiac growth. Role of MR in hypertrophy in the adult heart In adult rats, the MR is thought to induce cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis occurring in response to ischemia; systemic administration

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Isabel Rodríguez-Gómez, Inmaculada Banegas, Rosemary Wangensteen, Andrés Quesada, Rosario Jiménez, Mercedes Gómez-Morales, Francisco O'Valle, Juan Duarte, and Félix Vargas

Introduction Thyroid hormone (TH) can induce cardiac hypertrophy and angiogenesis in several animal models ( Chilian et al . 1985 , Weiss & Grover 1987 , Breisch et al . 1989 , Tomanek et al . 1998 ), and TH and the TH analogue 3

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Yasumasa Ikeda, Ken-ichi Aihara, Sumiko Yoshida, Masashi Akaike, and Toshio Matsumoto

effects against cardiovascular diseases. Many studies have revealed preventive and favorable effects of estrogen on cardiac hypertrophy ( Malhotra et al . 1990 , Weinberg et al . 1999 , van Eickels et al . 2001 , Cavasin et al . 2003 ) and vascular

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Fausto Bogazzi, Francesco Raggi, Federica Ultimieri, Dania Russo, Aldo D'Alessio, Antonella Manariti, Sandra Brogioni, Luca Manetti, and Enio Martino

) apoptosis was reduced in the former and increased in the latter ( Bogazzi et al . 2008 a , b ); ii) cardiac hypertrophy was evident, at histology, in transgenic mice aged 6 months but not in younger animals ( Bollano et al . 2000 , Fu et al . 2000

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Achim Lother, Lisa Deng, Michael Huck, David Fürst, Jessica Kowalski, Jennifer S Esser, Martin Moser, Christoph Bode, and Lutz Hein

al. 2014 , Barrett Mueller et al. 2015 ), promotes inflammation ( Jia et al. 2015 , 2016 , Lother et al. 2016 ) and contributes to cardiac fibrosis and hypertrophy ( Jia et al. 2015 , Lother et al. 2016 ). Cardiac hypertrophy occurs

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Natalia Ogonowski, Giselle Piro, Déborah Pessah, Noelia Arreche, Bernardita Puchulu, Ana M Balaszczuk, and Andrea L Fellet

hypothyroidism ( Wang et al. 2010 , Sarati et al. 2012 ) and concentric left ventricle hypertrophy associated with thyrotoxicosis ( Abergel et al. 1995 ). The mechanisms of the animal model of thyroid disturbances-induced cardiac hypertrophy are

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S S Jonker and S Louey

wall stress. When the increase in systemic pressure induced by exogenous AII is mitigated by co-infusion with a nitric oxide donor, cardiac hypertrophy, cellular hypertrophy and accelerated terminal differentiation are all eliminated ( Sandgren et al

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Morag J Young and Amanda J Rickard

of these findings was truly appreciated when inappropriate aldosterone-for-salt status in rodents was shown to produce hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis ( Selye 1946 , Brilla & Weber 1992 ). Large-scale clinical trials have subsequently

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Jorge N Artaza, Suzanne Reisz-Porszasz, Joan S Dow, Robert A Kloner, James Tsao, Shalender Bhasin, and Nestor F Gonzalez-Cadavid

). In line with the latter observations, in transgenic mice with cardiac-specific expression of activated Akt, which reduces cardiomyocyte death and induces cardiac hypertrophy, Mst expression in the heart was considerably induced ( Cook et al. 2002