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Vinicius Fernandes Cruzat, Kevin Noel Keane, Anita Lavarda Scheinpflug, Robson Cordeiro, Mario J Soares, and Philip Newsholme

). Interestingly, the absence of Ala-Gln per se enhanced CHOP, indicating an important role for amino acids in the control of ER stress. Some reports have described increased levels of CHOP in insulitis ( Marhfour et al . 2012 ) and depletion of GSH ( Kim et al

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Neil Tanday, Peter R Flatt, Nigel Irwin, and R Charlotte Moffett

2009 The role of inflammation in insulitis and β-cell loss in type 1 diabetes . Nature Reviews: Endocrinology 5 219 – 226 . ( https://doi.org/10.1038/nrendo.2009.21 ) Farilla L Bulotta A Hirshberg B Li Calzi S Khoury N Noushmehr H

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Bernadette M Trojanowski, Heba H Salem, Heike Neubauer, Eric Simon, Martin Wagner, Rajkumar Dorajoo, Bernhard O Boehm, Leticia Labriola, Thomas Wirth, and Bernd Baumann

extent the pathology found in type 2 diabetes patients ( Lee et al. 2017 ). IKK2-DN Pdx1 mice are non-obese and non-hyperinsulinaemic, and similar to AKITA mice they exhibit a reduction of their β-cell mass without insulitis and develop islet fibrosis

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Frank H Bloomfield

insulitis in the non-obese diabetic mouse . Diabetologia 31 322 – 328 . Rhodes CJ 2005 Type 2 diabetes-a matter of beta-cell life and death? Science 307 380 – 384 . ( https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1104345 ) 15662003 10.1126/science

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Kleber L A Souza, Ewa Gurgul-Convey, Matthias Elsner, and Sigurd Lenzen

-10, is related to the protection of pancreatic β-cells ( Zaccone et al . 1999 , Kaminski et al . 2007 ) and the prevention of destructive insulitis ( Rabinovitch & Suarez-Pinzon 2003 ). Cytokines acting alone or in combination induce various

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Jose Casasnovas, Yunhee Jo, Xi Rao, Xiaoling Xuei, Mary E Brown, and Kok Lim Kua

Maternal obesity exacerbates insulitis and type 1 diabetes in non-obese diabetic mice . Reproduction 148 73 – 79 . ( https://doi.org/10.1530/REP-13-0614 ) 10.1530/REP-13-0614 24692565 White V Jawerbaum A Mazzucco MB Gauster M Desoye G Hiden U 2015