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Gabriele Wolf, Nicole Aumann, Marta Michalska, Antje Bast, Jürgen Sonnemann, James F Beck, Uwe Lendeckel, Philip Newsholme, and Reinhard Walther

Introduction Autoimmune destruction of pancreatic β cells during the development of type 1 diabetes is a complex process involving both cellular and humoral elements of cytotoxicity ( Mandrup-Poulsen et al . 1990 ). It is characterized by insulitis

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K Goosse, T Bouckenooghe, M Balteau, B Reusens, and C Remacle

found in higher concentration in type-1 diabetes patients ( Nicoletti et al . 2002 , Cipollone et al . 2005 ), where they participate in the recruitment and activation of lymphocytes and macrophages implicated in insulitis ( Atkinson & Wilson 2002

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Manuel C Lemos, Brian Harding, Anita A C Reed, Jeshmi Jeyabalan, Gerard V Walls, Michael R Bowl, James Sharpe, Sarah Wedden, Julie E Moss, Allyson Ross, Duncan Davidson, and Rajesh V Thakker

molecular assessments to investigate autoimmune insulitis in type 1 diabetes mellitus ( Alanentalo et al . 2008 ). In summary, our study, which has demonstrated the effects of genetic background on the phenotypes of embryonic lethality and neural tube

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Vinicius Fernandes Cruzat, Kevin Noel Keane, Anita Lavarda Scheinpflug, Robson Cordeiro, Mario J Soares, and Philip Newsholme

). Interestingly, the absence of Ala-Gln per se enhanced CHOP, indicating an important role for amino acids in the control of ER stress. Some reports have described increased levels of CHOP in insulitis ( Marhfour et al . 2012 ) and depletion of GSH ( Kim et al

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Bernadette M Trojanowski, Heba H Salem, Heike Neubauer, Eric Simon, Martin Wagner, Rajkumar Dorajoo, Bernhard O Boehm, Leticia Labriola, Thomas Wirth, and Bernd Baumann

extent the pathology found in type 2 diabetes patients ( Lee et al. 2017 ). IKK2-DN Pdx1 mice are non-obese and non-hyperinsulinaemic, and similar to AKITA mice they exhibit a reduction of their β-cell mass without insulitis and develop islet fibrosis

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Kleber L A Souza, Ewa Gurgul-Convey, Matthias Elsner, and Sigurd Lenzen

-10, is related to the protection of pancreatic β-cells ( Zaccone et al . 1999 , Kaminski et al . 2007 ) and the prevention of destructive insulitis ( Rabinovitch & Suarez-Pinzon 2003 ). Cytokines acting alone or in combination induce various

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Jose Casasnovas, Yunhee Jo, Xi Rao, Xiaoling Xuei, Mary E Brown, and Kok Lim Kua

Maternal obesity exacerbates insulitis and type 1 diabetes in non-obese diabetic mice . Reproduction 148 73 – 79 . ( https://doi.org/10.1530/REP-13-0614 ) 10.1530/REP-13-0614 24692565 White V Jawerbaum A Mazzucco MB Gauster M Desoye G Hiden U 2015