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Kristen E Syring, Karin J Bosma, Slavina B Goleva, Kritika Singh, James K Oeser, Christopher A Lopez, Eric P Skaar, Owen P McGuinness, Lea K Davis, David R Powell, and Richard M O’Brien

1996 B lymphocytes are essential for the initiation of T cell-mediated autoimmune diabetes: analysis of a new “speed congenic” stock of NOD.Ig mu null mice. Journal of Experimental Medicine 184 2049 – 2053 . (

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J M Mellado-Gil and M Aguilar-Diosdado

pancreatic islets of NOD mice with spontaneous and cyclophosphamide-accelerated diabetes. Diabetologia 41 1381 –1388. Castaño L & Eisenbarth GS 1990 Type 1 diabetes: a chronic autoimmune disease of human, mouse, and rat

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A J Craven, A J Nixon, M G Ashby, C J Ormandy, K Blazek, R J Wilkins, and A J Pearson

. 2001 ), and from four littermates or closely related mice that were wild type for PRLR. Explants of shaved scapular skin (2 × 10 mm) were prepared in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM) with 10% foetal calf serum and grafted onto 5-week old NOD

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Marta Montolio, Montse Biarnés, Noèlia Téllez, Jessica Escoriza, Joan Soler, and Eduard Montanya

mostly limited to islets transplanted to non obese diabetic (NOD) mice ( Gysemans et al. 2000 , 2003 ). Moreover, direct evidence of the presence of the cytokine in islet grafts has not yet been provided, and the question of the cellular origin of

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Miriam Thomalla, Andreas Schmid, Elena Neumann, Petra Ina Pfefferle, Ulf Müller-Ladner, Andreas Schäffler, and Thomas Karrasch

and adipocytes in mice, while Nod2 −/− -mice exhibited increased adipose tissue inflammation and exacerbated insulin resistance after feeding on a high-fat diet ( Denou et al . 2015 ). Injecting the bacterial cell wall component muramyl dipeptide (MDP

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Hans-Peter Holthoff, Kerstin Uhland, Gabor Laszlo Kovacs, Andreas Reimann, Kristin Adler, Clara Wenhart, and Martin Ungerer

immune tolerance but exacerbate thyroid autoimmunity in hTSHR/NOD.H2h4 mice . Journal of Immunology 202 2570 – 2577 . ( ) Miller-Gallacher J Sanders P Young S Sullivan A Baker S Reddington SC

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Ana P Pinto, Alisson L da Rocha, Eike B Kohama, Rafael C Gaspar, Fernando M Simabuco, Fabiani G Frantz, Leandro P de Moura, José R Pauli, Dennys E Cintra, Eduardo R Ropelle, Ellen C de Freitas, and Adelino S R da Silva

connected with muscle metabolism because this cytokine is released from contracting skeletal muscles ( Ostrowski et al . 1998 , Pedersen et al . 2001 , Pedersen & Febbraio 2008 ). Recently, da Rocha et al . (2017) verified that mice submitted to an

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Haiyong Chen, Hui-Yao Lan, Dimitrios H Roukos, and William C Cho

( Plaisance et al . 2006 ). Interestingly, studies of miRNA expression profiles shows that the increase in miR-29a/b/c in the islets of prediabetic NOD mice is also associated with impaired glucose-induced insulin secretion by diminishing the expression of

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Jiyeon Lee, Eunjin Lim, Yumi Kim, Endan Li, and Seungjoon Park

the KA-induced hippocampal neurodegeneration in the mice. Materials and Methods Animals and drug treatment Male C57BL/6 mice (22–24 g, 8-week-old) were used in the present study. They were housed under controlled environmental conditions (12 h light:12

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Morag J Young and Amanda J Rickard

arterial stiffness, which is also an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. A number of recent studies have suggested that VSMC MR play a direct mechanistic role in vascular compliance and thus extra-renal blood pressure control. Mice in which