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Sjoerd D Joustra, Onno C Meijer, Charlotte A Heinen, Isabel M Mol, El Houari Laghmani, Rozemarijn M A Sengers, Gabriela Carreno, A S Paul van Trotsenburg, Nienke R Biermasz, Daniel J Bernard, Jan M Wit, Wilma Oostdijk, Ans M M van Pelt, Geert Hamer, and Gerry T M Wagenaar

. 2012 ). In addition, a proportion of affected males show prolactin deficiency, partial and transient GH deficiency, disharmonious pubertal development (i.e., normal timing of testicular growth but delayed rise of testosterone), high insulin-like growth

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Sylvia V H Grommen, Lutgarde Arckens, Tim Theuwissen, Veerle M Darras, and Bert De Groef

for thyroid hormone receptors alpha and beta in brain development indicated by differential expression of receptor genes . EMBO Journal 10 269 – 275 . Di Fulvio M Coleoni AH Pellizas CG Masini-Repiso AM 2000 Tri-iodothyronine induces

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Li Li, Xiaohua Li, Wenjun Zhou, and Joseph L Messina

insulin signaling pathways ( Lillioja et al . 1988 , Pessin & Saltiel 2000 , Shulman 2000 , Saltiel & Kahn 2001 ). Insulin resistance is present not only in peripheral tissues such as the liver, muscle, and adipose tissue, but also in the brain where

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J Bancroft

Functional brain imaging promises to throw considerable light on brain activity related to sexual function, but is still at an early stage of development, with methodological inconsistencies across studies making interpretation of the findings more difficult

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Andrés Quintanar-Stephano, Roberto Chavira-Ramírez, Kalman Kovacs, and Istvan Berczi

Introduction Acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an inflammatory disease of the brain and spinal cord induced by T lymphocytes. EAE is widely used as an experimental model for human multiple sclerosis ( Martin

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Erik J Giltay, King H Kho, Ben A Blansjaar, Marcel M Verbeek, P Ben H Geurtz, Johanna M Geleijnse, and Louis J G Gooren

CJ, Ashburner J, Friston KJ, Frackowiak RS, Oreland L & Skuse DH 2003 Dosage-sensitive X-linked locus influences the development of amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex, and fear recognition in humans. Brain 126 2431 –2446

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Yi-Lin Yan, Poulomi Bhattacharya, Xin Jun He, Bhaskar Ponugoti, Ben Marquardt, Jason Layman, Melissa Grunloh, John H Postlethwait, and David A Rubin

Introduction Parathyroid hormone (PTH) acts as the main hypercalcemic hormone while PTH-related protein (PTHrP, official human symbol PTHLH (PTH-like hormone) and referred to as Pthlh in this manuscript), is essential for embryonic development

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Chunxiao Qi, Xiaoming Ji, Guoliang Zhang, Yunxiao Kang, Yuanxiang Huang, Rui Cui, Shuangcheng Li, Huixian Cui, and Geming Shi

predominance and symptom relief via anti-androgen treatment of TS suggest that the hyperandrogen environment during the early development might be involved in the regulation of the brain activity of male TS patients. Brain activity depends on the balanced

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Risheng Ye, Min Ni, Miao Wang, Shengzhan Luo, Genyuan Zhu, Robert H Chow, and Amy S Lee

. 2005 ). Furthermore, variations within IP3R3 have been identified as a risk factor for type 1 diabetes in humans ( Roach et al . 2006 ). IP3R1 is the most abundant isoform in mouse brain and pancreatic β-cells ( De Smedt et al . 1997 , Lee & Laychock

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Maria Esteban-Lopez and Alexander I Agoulnik

system on male reproductive tract development was first discovered two decades ago in gene-deficient male mice with cryptorchidism or undescended testes ( Nef & Parada 1999 , Zimmermann et al. 1999 , Overbeek et al. 2001 ). In humans, this genital