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Manesh Chittezhath, Cho M M Wai, Vanessa S Y Tay, Minni Chua, Sarah R Langley, and Yusuf Ali

Resident macrophages of pancreatic islets have a seminal role in the initiation of autoimmune diabetes of NOD mice . PNAS 114 E10418 – E10427 . ( ) Carter JD Dula SB Corbin KL Wu R Nunemaker CS 2009

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Shuang-Xia Zhao, Shanli Tsui, Anthony Cheung, Raymond S Douglas, Terry J Smith, and J Paul Banga

-cells sensitized with the human thyrotropin receptor, to naïve BALB/c and NOD mice . Endocrinology 135 4637 – 4643 doi:10.1210/en.137.11.4637 . Costagliola S Many MC Denef JF Pohlenz J Refetoff S Vassart G 2000 Genetic immunization of outbred

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James M Evans, Laura S Morris, and Julian R Marchesi

gut microbiota plays a role in the development of type 1 diabetes ( Wen et al . 2008 ). In this study, the islets of Langherans of germ-free, specific pathogen-free and altered Schaedler flora ( Dewhirst et al . 1999 ) Myd88 knockout NOD mice were

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Stephen C Hanley, Béatrice Assouline-Thomas, Julia Makhlin, and Lawrence Rosenberg

therapy with epidermal growth factor and gastrin increases beta-cell mass and reverses hyperglycemia in diabetic NOD mice . Diabetes 54 2596 – 2601 . doi:10.2337/diabetes.54.9.2596 . Vinter-Jensen L Juhl CO Teglbjaerg PS Poulsen SS Dajani

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Ashley Patton, Tyler Church, Caroline Wilson, Jean Thuma, Douglas J Goetz, Darlene E Berryman, Edward O List, Frank Schwartz, and Kelly D McCall

MC Benencia F Malgor R Schwartz FL 2013 Phenylmethimazole suppresses dsRNA-induced cytotoxicity and inflammatory cytokines in murine pancreatic beta cells and blocks viral acceleration of type 1 diabetes in NOD mice . Molecules 18 3841

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Qinglei Yin, Liyun Shen, Yicheng Qi, Dalong Song, Lei Ye, Ying Peng, Yanqiu Wang, Zhou Jin, Guang Ning, Weiqing Wang, Dongping Lin, and Shu Wang

addition, the SIRT1 activator resveratrol has been shown to prevent and treat spontaneous type 1 diabetes, which normally develops in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice ( Lee et al. 2011 ). In contrast, there is a paucity of studies regarding the role of SIRT1

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G Burnstock and I Novak

centres of islets to replace the lost β-cells in both STZ-diabetic rats and NOD mice ( Coutinho-Silva et al . 2003 , 2007 ). A study has shown that P2X 7 receptors were expressed in β-cells (and also α-cells) and receptors were down-regulated in type 2

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Maria Petropavlovskaia, Julia Makhlin, John Sampalis, and Lawrence Rosenberg

patient with new-onset type I diabetes and acts as T-cell autoantigen in NOD mice. Diabetes 51 339 –346. Hamamoto N , Ashizawa N, Niigaki M, Kaji T, Katsube T, Endoh H, Watanabe M, Sumi S & Kinoshita Y 2002 Morphological

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Mohammed Bensellam, Jean-Christophe Jonas, and D Ross Laybutt

metallothionein overexpression in β-cells, while reducing cytokine-induced ROS generation, accelerated diabetes onset in male NOD mice in association with increased β-cell death and reduced PDX1 protein levels ( Li et al . 2006 a ). It should be emphasized here