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Manesh Chittezhath, Cho M M Wai, Vanessa S Y Tay, Minni Chua, Sarah R Langley, and Yusuf Ali

Resident macrophages of pancreatic islets have a seminal role in the initiation of autoimmune diabetes of NOD mice . PNAS 114 E10418 – E10427 . ( ) Carter JD Dula SB Corbin KL Wu R Nunemaker CS 2009

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James M Evans, Laura S Morris, and Julian R Marchesi

gut microbiota plays a role in the development of type 1 diabetes ( Wen et al . 2008 ). In this study, the islets of Langherans of germ-free, specific pathogen-free and altered Schaedler flora ( Dewhirst et al . 1999 ) Myd88 knockout NOD mice were

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Sandra K Szlapinski, Anthony A Botros, Sarah Donegan, Renee T King, Gabrielle Retta, Brenda J Strutt, and David J Hill

to controls. This may have helped to enhance β-cell survival in the face of a higher cytokine environment, as has been observed in autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice ( Wang et al. 2008 ). The PD-L1 ligand has also been shown to be expressed in β

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Qinglei Yin, Liyun Shen, Yicheng Qi, Dalong Song, Lei Ye, Ying Peng, Yanqiu Wang, Zhou Jin, Guang Ning, Weiqing Wang, Dongping Lin, and Shu Wang

addition, the SIRT1 activator resveratrol has been shown to prevent and treat spontaneous type 1 diabetes, which normally develops in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice ( Lee et al. 2011 ). In contrast, there is a paucity of studies regarding the role of SIRT1

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Noèlia Téllez and Eduard Montanya

.3727/096368908786092775 ) Suarez-Pinzon WL Power RF Yan Y Wasserfall C Atkinson M Rabinovitch A 2008b Combination therapy with glucagon-like peptide-1 and gastrin restores normoglycemia in diabetic NOD mice . Diabetes 57 3281 – 3288 . ( doi:10.2337/db08

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Jian Ma, Xin He, Yan Cao, Kienan O’Dwyer, Katherine M Szigety, Yuan Wu, Buddha Gurung, Zijie Feng, Bryson W Katona, and Xianxin Hua

:// ) Rui J Deng S Lebastchi J Clark PL Usmani-Brown S Herold KC 2016 Methylation of insulin DNA in response to proinflammatory cytokines during the progression of autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice

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G Burnstock and I Novak

centres of islets to replace the lost β-cells in both STZ-diabetic rats and NOD mice ( Coutinho-Silva et al . 2003 , 2007 ). A study has shown that P2X 7 receptors were expressed in β-cells (and also α-cells) and receptors were down-regulated in type 2

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Maria Petropavlovskaia, Julia Makhlin, John Sampalis, and Lawrence Rosenberg

patient with new-onset type I diabetes and acts as T-cell autoantigen in NOD mice. Diabetes 51 339 –346. Hamamoto N , Ashizawa N, Niigaki M, Kaji T, Katsube T, Endoh H, Watanabe M, Sumi S & Kinoshita Y 2002 Morphological

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Mohammed Bensellam, Jean-Christophe Jonas, and D Ross Laybutt

metallothionein overexpression in β-cells, while reducing cytokine-induced ROS generation, accelerated diabetes onset in male NOD mice in association with increased β-cell death and reduced PDX1 protein levels ( Li et al . 2006 a ). It should be emphasized here