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Neele S Dellschaft, Marie-Cecile Alexandre-Gouabau, David S Gardner, Jean-Philippe Antignac, Duane H Keisler, Helen Budge, Michael E Symonds, and Sylvain P Sebert

-related peptide ( AgRP ); ii) insulin and leptin signaling: protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 1 ( PTP1B ( PTPN1 )), suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 ( SOCS3 ), insulin receptor ( IR ( INSR )), and leptin receptor ( obRb ( LEPR )); iii

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Sebastio Perrini, Luigi Laviola, Marcos C Carreira, Angelo Cignarelli, Annalisa Natalicchio, and Francesco Giorgino

receptor and translocation to the nucleus, with subsequent binding to DNA and regulation of gene expression. Among the target genes, GH regulates the expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS), a family of negative regulators that terminate the

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Kelly D McCall, Dawn Holliday, Eric Dickerson, Brian Wallace, Anthony L Schwartz, Christopher Schwartz, Christopher J Lewis, Leonard D Kohn, and Frank L Schwartz

inflammation and induce insulin resistance via multiple mechanisms including, but not limited to, serine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and up-regulation of suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS; Paz et al . 1997 , Lin et al

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Marion Walser, Maria Teresa Samà, Ruth Wickelgren, Maria Åberg, Mohammad Bohlooly-Y, Bob Olsson, Jan Törnell, Jörgen Isgaard, and N David Åberg

numbers ( Ransome et al . 2004 ), while increasing GH signalling via disrupting the suppressor of cytokine signalling 2 (SOCS2) decreased neuron numbers and presumably increased astrocyte numbers ( Turnley et al . 2002 ). Neither from these studies nor

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R P Rhoads, J W Kim, M E Van Amburgh, R A Ehrhardt, S J Frank, and Y R Boisclair

the 18S signal. Real-time SYBR green PCR assays were used to measure transcript abundance of GHR1B, GHR1C, suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS3), and p85 regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (p85-PI3KR1) and 18S (Table 1

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Sebastian Weise, Susan Kralisch, Grit Sommer, Ulrike Lossner, Matthias Bluher, Michael Stumvoll, and Mathias Fasshauer

membrane through downregulation of insulin receptor substrate-1 ( Jager et al . 2007 ). Furthermore, long-term IL-1α stimulation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes induced expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 and -3 ( He et al . 2006 ), which are well

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Gayathri Swaminathan, Bentley Varghese, Chellappagounder Thangavel, Christopher J Carbone, Alexander Plotnikov, K G Suresh Kumar, Elizabeth M Jablonski, Charles V Clevenger, Vincent Goffin, Luqin Deng, Stuart J Frank, and Serge Y Fuchs

. Irandoust MI Aarts LH Roovers O Gits J Erkeland SJ Touw IP 2007 Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 controls lysosomal routing of G-CSF receptor . EMBO Journal 26 1782 – 1793 . Kohlhuber F Rogers NC Watling

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Fausto Bogazzi, Dania Russo, Francesco Raggi, Mohammad Bohlooly-Y, Jan Tornell, Chiara Sardella, Martina Lombardi, Claudio Urbani, Luca Manetti, Sandra Brogioni, and Enio Martino

doi:10.1210/en.2008-0346 . Bogazzi F Ultimieri F Raggi F Russo D Costa A Marciano E Bartalena L Martino E 2009a Changes in the expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) 2 in the colonic mucosa of acromegalic patients are

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J G Miquet, A I Sotelo, A Bartke, and D Turyn

signaling regulation. The members of the suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family of proteins SOCS-1 and SOCS-3 inhibit JAK2 activity ( Greenhalgh & Hilton 2001 ), while the SH2 domain-containing protein-tyrosine phosphatase-2 (SHP-2) binds to

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Susan Kralisch, Johannes Klein, Ulrike Lossner, Matthias Bluher, Ralf Paschke, Michael Stumvoll, and Mathias Fasshauer

suggest that downregulation of visfatin in adipocytes may contribute to impaired glucose tolerance caused by increased GH levels. However, it has to be pointed out that stimulation of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)-1 ( Fasshauer et al. 2004 b