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Sandra K Szlapinski, Anthony A Botros, Sarah Donegan, Renee T King, Gabrielle Retta, Brenda J Strutt, and David J Hill

to controls. This may have helped to enhance β-cell survival in the face of a higher cytokine environment, as has been observed in autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice ( Wang et al. 2008 ). The PD-L1 ligand has also been shown to be expressed in β

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Vanesa Jiménez-Amilburu, Susanne Jong-Raadsen, Jeroen Bakkers, Herman P Spaink, and Rubén Marín-Juez

( Scheepers et al . 2004 ). In the presence of insulin, GLUT4 translocates to the plasma membrane, mediating the postprandial glucose uptake. Surprisingly, Glut4 -deficient mice did not develop hyperglycemia, and skeletal muscle tissue showed an increased

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Shuang-Xia Zhao, Shanli Tsui, Anthony Cheung, Raymond S Douglas, Terry J Smith, and J Paul Banga

-cells sensitized with the human thyrotropin receptor, to naïve BALB/c and NOD mice . Endocrinology 135 4637 – 4643 doi:10.1210/en.137.11.4637 . Costagliola S Many MC Denef JF Pohlenz J Refetoff S Vassart G 2000 Genetic immunization of outbred

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Jean-Claude Henquin, Myriam Nenquin, Andras Szollosi, Atsutaka Kubosaki, and Abner Louis Notkins

Hendricks W Notkins AL 2004 Targeted disruption of the IA-2β gene causes glucose intolerance and impairs insulin secretion but does not prevent the development of diabetes in NOD mice . Diabetes 53 1684 – 1691 . Kubosaki A Nakamura S Notkins AL

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Abraham B Roos and Magnus Nord

this, the GR is highly expressed in the lung and airways ( Adcock et al . 1996 ; ). In absence of GC signaling, mice die shortly after birth due to respiratory failure, as demonstrated in mice lacking the GR. The

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Benoit Cox, Emma Laporte, Annelies Vennekens, Hiroto Kobayashi, Charlotte Nys, Indra Van Zundert, Hiroshi Uji-i, Alizée Vercauteren Drubbel, Benjamin Beck, Heleen Roose, Matteo Boretto, and Hugo Vankelecom

floxed STOP cassette; obtained from Dr. Carmeliet, KU Leuven). NOD-SCID mice were provided by in-house breeding. Genotyping of all mouse models was performed as previously described ( Barker et al. 2007 , Fu et al. 2012 , Roose et al. 2017 ). Mice

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Brittney L Marshall, Yang Liu, Michelle J Farrington, Jiude Mao, William G Helferich, A Katrin Schenk, Nathan J Bivens, Saurav J Sarma, Zhentian Lei, Lloyd W Sumner, Trupti Joshi, and Cheryl S Rosenfeld

et al. 2010 ) and behavioral abnormalities such as increased defensive behaviors and demasculinization in male mice ( Wisniewski et al. 2005 ). Developmental exposure of rodents to GEN is associated with increased anxiety and aggressive behaviors

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Gabriel Forn-Cuní, Monica Varela, Conrado M Fernández-Rodríguez, Antonio Figueras, and Beatriz Novoa

parameters ( Subramanian et al . 2005 ). Obesity-related datasets were retrieved from published studies: zebrafish DIO (GSE18566) ( Oka et al . 2010 ), rat DIO (GSE8700) ( Li et al . 2008 ), mice DIO (GSE11790) ( Poussin et al . 2008 ), and human

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Baiyang You, Yaoshan Dun, Wenliang Zhang, Lingjun Jiang, Hui Li, Murong Xie, Yuan Liu, and Suixin Liu

transgenic mice expressing a mitochondria-targeted form of catalase were resistant to HFD-induced IR, which indicates the involvement of mitochondria-derived ROS in the pathogenesis of IR ( Anderson et al. 2009 ). Mitochondria are the most important

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L Zhao, Z Li, M Kullin, L A H Borg, and F A Karlsson

) 51 –57. Atkinson MA , Maclaren NK & Luchetta R 1990 Insulitis and diabetes in NOD mice reduced by prophylactic insulin therapy. Diabetes 39 933 –937. Bergsten P , Gylfe E, Wesslén N