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Lili Guo, Penghua Fang, Mei Yu, Mingyi Shi, Ping Bo, and Zhenwen Zhang

others have found that central galanin may facilitate GLUT4 translocation and insulin sensitivity in healthy and type 2 diabetic rats (T2DR) ( Guo et al . 2012 , Liang et al . 2012 , Zhang et al . 2012 , Bu et al . 2013 ). However, little is known

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Adam Gesing, Andrzej Bartke, and Michal M Masternak

glucose, relative insulin sensitivity index (RISI), and adiponectin were assessed denote animals that had been receiving PIO treatment. Basal glucose, insulin and adiponectin levels, as well as RISI were measured at the start of the study. The RISI was

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Ruben Rodriguez, Jacqueline N Minas, Jose Pablo Vazquez-Medina, Daisuke Nakano, David G Parkes, Akira Nishiyama, and Rudy M Ortiz

onset of T2DM ( Tocci et al . 2011 ). Nonetheless, it is not clear whether the disease state of the organism and treatment duration determine the beneficial effects of RAS inhibition on pancreatic function and insulin sensitivity. Therefore, the aim of

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Adina Maniu, Graham W Aberdeen, Terrie J Lynch, Jerry L Nadler, Soon O K Kim, Michael J Quon, Gerald J Pepe, and Eugene D Albrecht

& Korach 2006 , Heldring et al . 2007 , Wiik et al . 2009 ). Estradiol stimulates insulin sensitivity and enhances glucose tolerance in skeletal muscle of adult mice ( Gao et al . 2006 , Lundholm et al . 2008 , Riant et al . 2009 ) and protects

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Hong Ma, Jin Yuan, Jinyu Ma, Jie Ding, Weiwei Lin, Xinlei Wang, Mingliang Zhang, Yi Sun, Runze Wu, Chun Liu, Cheng Sun, and Yunjuan Gu

). Subsequently, most blood glucose in the circulation cannot be translocated into cells and eventually results in hyperglycemia, which further worsens insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissues ( Samuel & Shulman 2012 , Guo 2014 ). Thus, strategies to increase

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Cheryl A Conover, Megan A Mason, James A Levine, and Colleen M Novak

-resistant dwarf mice with reduced circulating IGF-I show decreased fasting levels of glucose and insulin and increased insulin sensitivity ( Dominici et al . 2002 , Coschigano et al . 2003 , Bonkowski et al . 2006 ). There is a similarly reduced glucose

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Anna G Holmes, Jose L Mesa, Bronwyn A Neill, Jason Chung, Andrew L Carey, Gregory R Steinberg, Bruce E Kemp, Robert J Southgate, Graeme I Lancaster, Clinton R Bruce, Matthew J Watt, and Mark A Febbraio

administered either by miniosmotic pump (continuous IL-6) or via twice-daily injection (intermittent IL-6). Irrespective of the mode of delivery, herein we show that 14-d treatment with IL-6 improves insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. Materials and

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Julie Takada, Miriam Helena Fonseca-Alaniz, Tarcila Beatriz Ferraz de Campos, Sandra Andreotti, Amanda Baron Campana, Maristela Okamoto, Cristina das Neves Borges-Silva, Ubiratan Fabres Machado, and Fabio Bessa Lima

(WAT) plays a crucial role in energy homeostasis to include insulin sensitivity, appetite control, energy balance, immunity, angiogenesis, blood pressure, and lipid metabolism, by secreting a wide range of bioactive proteins termed ‘adipokines

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J C Parker, K S Lavery, N Irwin, B D Green, B Greer, P Harriott, F P M O’Harte, V A Gault, and P R Flatt

intervals. Blood samples for determination of plasma glucose and insulin were taken at 2–4-day intervals from non-fasted animals at 1000 h. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance (18 mmol/kg body weight (bw)) and insulin sensitivity (50 U/kg bw) were performed on

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Maristela Mitiko Okamoto, Gabriel Forato Anhê, Robinson Sabino-Silva, Milano Felipe dos Santos Ferreira Marques, Helayne Soares Freitas, Rosana Cristina Tieko Mori, Karla Fabiana S Melo, and Ubiratan Fabres Machado

insulinopenic rats, the effect of different doses of insulin upon insulin sensitivity and the potential molecular mechanisms involved. Materials and Methods Materials Neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) and regular insulin were purchased from Eli Lilly. Rabbit