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João A B Pedroso, Pedro O R de Mendonca, Marco A S Fortes, Igor Tomaz, Vitor L Pecorali, Thais B Auricino, Ismael C Costa, Leandro B Lima, Isadora C Furigo, Debora N Bueno, Angela M Ramos-Lobo, Claudimara F P Lotfi, and Jose Donato Jr

/STAT) pathway, which controls the transcription of numerous genes and thereby regulates cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis ( Krebs & Hilton 2001 ). Cytokine signaling is modulated by proteins from the family of suppressors of cytokine signaling

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Marc Schneeberger, Ramon Gomis, and Marc Claret

defects in females ( Table 1 ). This signaling cascade is negatively regulated by the suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3), the expression of which is also regulated by STAT3 and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) ( Robertson et al . 2008

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David R Grattan

suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins ( Anderson et al . 2006 a , b , Steyn et al . 2008 ). At the same time as the loss of dopamine secretion, there is an increase in met-enkephalin expression in the dopamine neurons ( Merchenthaler 1993

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S Eleswarapu and H Jiang

al. 1997 ), the acid labile subunit (ALS) of the IGF binding complex ( Ooi et al. 1997 ), serine protease inhibitor (Spi) 2.1 ( Yoon et al. 1990 ), suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) genes ( Tollet-Egnell et al. 1999 ), phosphoenol

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Christoffer Clemmensen, Sanela Smajilovic, Andreas N Madsen, Anders B Klein, Birgitte Holst, and Hans Bräuner-Osborne


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Camila Calvino, Luana L Souza, Ricardo H Costa-e-Sousa, Norma A S Almeida, Isis H Trevenzoli, and Carmen C Pazos-Moura

). pSTAT3 induces the transcription of several genes, including suppressor of cytokine signalling 3 (SOCS3), which inhibits JAK2–STAT3 signalling, leading to central leptin resistance ( Bjørbaek et al . 1999 , Flier 2004 , Howard et al . 2004 , Donato

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Qinkai Li, Weidong Yin, Manbo Cai, Yi Liu, Hongjie Hou, Qingyun Shen, Chi Zhang, Junxia Xiao, Xiaobo Hu, Qishisan Wu, Makoto Funaki, and Yutaka Nakaya

Norstedt G Rotwein P 2007 In vivo transcript profiling and phylogenetic analysis identifies suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 as a direct signal transducer and activator of transcription 5b target in liver . Molecular Endocrinology 21 293

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Isabel C Greenman, Edith Gomez, Claire E J Moore, and Terence P Herbert

concentration in two independent experiments Accession no. Fold change a a Average fold change from two independent experiments as calculated by MicroArray Suite 5. Gene description Cell signalling     Plexizn A2 D86949 −2.00     Suppressor of cytokine

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Sofianos Andrikopoulos, Christine M Massa, Kathryn Aston-Mourney, Alexandra Funkat, Barbara C Fam, Rebecca L Hull, Steven E Kahn, and Joseph Proietto

. Chong MM , Thomas HE & Kay TW 2002 Suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 regulates the sensitivity of pancreatic beta cells to tumor necrosis factor. Journal of Biological Chemistry 277 27945 –27952. Coleman DL & Hummel

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Teresa Priego, Miriam Granado, Estibaliz Castillero, Ana Isabel Martín, M Ángeles Villanúa, and Asunción López-Calderón

( Peinnequin et al. 2004 ), suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS-3) forward: CCTCCAG-CATCTTTGTCGGAAGAC; SOCS-3 reverse: TACTGG-TCCAGGAACTCCCGAATG; hypoxanthine–guanine phosphorybosyl transferase (Hprt) forward: CTCATG-GACTGATTATGGACAGGAC; Hprt reverse