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Sandra Pereira, Anu Shah, I George Fantus, Jamie W Joseph, and Adria Giacca

stress cannot be distinguished. A reductionist approach to the study of the effects of FFAs on insulin sensitivity is to intravenously infuse lipid emulsions, such as Intralipid, with heparin (IH) to stimulate lipoprotein lipase so that plasma FFAs are

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Li Ding, Yue Yin, Lingling Han, Yin Li, Jing Zhao, and Weizhen Zhang

restriction during embryonic period with high-fat diet (HFD) in later adult period significantly impairs the insulin sensitivity relative to the control animals fed HFD. This evidence suggests that nutritional supply during embryonic period influences the

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P Brandimarti, J M Costa-Júnior, S M Ferreira, A O Protzek, G J Santos, E M Carneiro, A C Boschero, and L F Rezende

Introduction Type 2 diabetes is a complex illness mainly characterized by hyperglycemia, usually accompanied by pancreatic islets malfunction, and reduced insulin sensitivity, as well as lower insulin clearance. Although hyperglycemia is one of the

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Daniel M Kelly and T Hugh Jones

Organization, is associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction, stroke and cardiovascular death. Reduced insulin sensitivity (known as insulin resistance) is the central biochemical defect associated with MetS and T2DM. Central obesity, hepatic

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Paul Millar, Nupur Pathak, Vadivel Parthsarathy, Anthony J Bjourson, Maurice O’Kane, Varun Pathak, R Charlotte Moffett, Peter R Flatt, and Victor A Gault

combination therapy for 28 days. Effects on glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, body weight, hormones, memory and learning, islet and brain histology were assessed. Materials and methods Animals Male NIH Swiss mice (aged 8–10 weeks) purchased

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Rachel Botchlett, Shih-Lung Woo, Mengyang Liu, Ya Pei, Xin Guo, Honggui Li, and Chaodong Wu

all three BCAAs were reduced by 45% lowers circulating BCAA to levels observed in control diet-fed lean rats and improves skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity. These results suggest a detrimental role of BCAA in obesity and insulin resistance ( White

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Gustavo Canul-Medina, Leticia Riverón-Negrete, Karina Pastén-Hidalgo, Paulina Morales-Castillo, Francisco García-Vázquez, and Cristina Fernandez-Mejia

insulin concentrations as compared to non-lactating rats ( Marynissen et al. 1983 , Burnol et al. 1986 , 1987 ), which can be explained by the high rate of glucose utilization and increased insulin sensitivity in the mammary glands and liver

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Yu Wu, Tingting Wu, Jun Wu, Lei Zhao, Qing Li, Zac Varghese, John F Moorhead, Stephen H Powis, Yaxi Chen, and Xiong Z Ruan

glucose levels decreased slowly and still higher in the HFD group ( Fig. 2 B), suggesting that HFD feeding reduced insulin sensitivity in mice. We also measured the major molecules involved in insulin signaling in insulin-sensitive tissues. HFD inhibited

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Meng Guo, Yuna Li, Yan Wang, Zhenkun Li, Xiaohong Li, Peikun Zhao, Changlong Li, Jianyi Lv, Xin Liu, Xiaoyan Du, and Zhenwen Chen

improvement in insulin sensitivity ( Standaert et al. 1999 , Huang et al. 2009 ). eEF1A2 can bind to phospho-PKCβ in vitro ( Piazzi et al. 2010 b ), indicating a potential association between eEF1A2 and PKCβ in skeletal muscle. In addition to

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Guoyue Yuan, Xia Chen, Qinyun Ma, Jie Qiao, Rongying Li, Xuesong Li, Shengxian Li, Jinfeng Tang, Libin Zhou, Huaidong Song, and Mingdao Chen

, Maeda et al. 2002 ), whereas transgenic overexpression ( Yamauchi et al. 2002 , Combs et al. 2004 ) improves insulin sensitivity. Interestingly, adiponectin also protects mice from atherosclerosis ( Kubota et al. 2002 , Yamauchi et al