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Craig S Nunemaker, H Grace Chung, Gretchen M Verrilli, Kathryn L Corbin, Aditi Upadhye, and Poonam R Sharma

in response to inflammation. CXCL1 and CXCL5 are also associated with diabetes. Increased serum levels of CXCL1 have been reported in patients with type 1 diabetes ( Takahashi et al . 2011 , Hakimizadeh et al . 2013 ) and more recently in T2D

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Xiaojun Zhou, Jianjun Dong, Li Zhang, Ju Liu, Xiaofeng Dong, Qing Yang, Fupeng Liu, and Lin Liao

injections of alloxan (80 mg/kg) via their ear veins to induce type 1 diabetes. As blood glucose levels should become stable within a week or so ( Hadcock et al . 1991 , Hao et al . 2013 ), blood glucose concentrations were measured 1 week after injection

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Manesh Chittezhath, Cho M M Wai, Vanessa S Y Tay, Minni Chua, Sarah R Langley, and Yusuf Ali

2015 Microbiota regulates type 1 diabetes through toll-like receptors . PNAS 112 9973 – 9977 . ( https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1508740112 ) Carrero JA Mccarthy DP Ferris ST Wan X Hu H Zinselmeyer BH Vomund AN Unanue ER 2017

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David A Taylor-Fishwick, Angela Bowman, Natasha Hamblet, Paul Bernard, David M Harlan, and Aaron I Vinik

Introduction A common pathology associated with diabetes onset is a loss of the functional pancreatic β-cell mass ( Bell & Polonsky 2001 ). The development of type 1 diabetes originates from an autoimmune-mediated destruction of β

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A Alidibbiat, C E Marriott, K T Scougall, S C Campbell, G C Huang, W M Macfarlane, and J A M Shaw

type 1 diabetes. This has been achieved through transplantation of vascularised pancreas or isolated islets retrieved from deceased donors ( Shapiro et al . 2000 , Robertson 2004 ). Widespread implementation remains severely restricted by limited

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Hong Guo-Parke, Jane T McCluskey, Catriona Kelly, Muhajir Hamid, Neville H McClenaghan, and Peter R Flatt

Introduction With current advances in cell engineering, insulin-secreting cell-based therapies for future therapeutic intervention in type 1 diabetes have become more promising ( Newgard et al . 1997 , Efrat 1998 , Limbert et al . 2007 ). This

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Mahendra Prasad Bhatt, Yeon-Ju Lee, Se-Hui Jung, Yong Ho Kim, Jong Yun Hwang, Eun-Taek Han, Won Sun Park, Seok-Ho Hong, Young-Myeong Kim, and Kwon-Soo Ha

concentrations with insulin ( Wahren et al . 2012 , Bhatt et al . 2014 ). C-peptide and insulin deficiencies are typical comorbidities of type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) and the later stages of type 2 DM ( Bhatt et al . 2014 ). C-peptide replacement therapy

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Aoife Kiely, Aisling Robinson, Neville H McClenaghan, Peter R Flatt, and Philip Newsholme

encoding TLR4 maps to chromosome 9q33 ( Rock et al . 1998 ), which has also been mapped to an unnamed type 1 diabetes locus ( Concannon et al . 2005 ). In a recent study, mice with a loss-of-function mutation in TLR4 (C3H/HeJ) were protected against the

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Karolina Bäck, Rakibul Islam, Git S Johansson, Simona I Chisalita, and Hans J Arnqvist

circulating bioactive IGF1 is 10 −10 to 10 −9  mol/l while the highest postprandial insulin concentrations reached are around 10 −9  mol/l ( Carey et al . 2003 , Frystyk 2004 ). In diabetes, particularly in type 1 diabetes, circulating IGF1 bioactivity is

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H Y Li, Y X Liu, L Harvey, S Shafaeizadeh, E M van der Beek, and W Han

tolerance; LFD, low-fat diet; RBG, random blood glucose; STZ, streptozotocin; T1D-like, a type 1 diabetes-like phenotype. GDM model with transient gestation-specific hyperglycemia The definition of GDM in rodents was not well established. Given