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Gabriele Wolf, Nicole Aumann, Marta Michalska, Antje Bast, Jürgen Sonnemann, James F Beck, Uwe Lendeckel, Philip Newsholme, and Reinhard Walther

-α), interleukin 1β (IL1β), and interferon-γ (INF-γ) induces the synthesis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS) via inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS; Rabinovitch & Suarez-Pinzon 1998 , Storling et al . 2005 ), which inhibit insulin

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Rodrigo S Fortunato, Andrea C F Ferreira, Fabio Hecht, Corinne Dupuy, and Denise P Carvalho

hormones are able to profoundly affect thyroid physiology and pathophysiology. In the present review, we focus on the known effects of estrogen on the thyroid gland and the possible involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the marked sexual

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Mahendra Prasad Bhatt, Yeon-Ju Lee, Se-Hui Jung, Yong Ho Kim, Jong Yun Hwang, Eun-Taek Han, Won Sun Park, Seok-Ho Hong, Young-Myeong Kim, and Kwon-Soo Ha

( Ceriello et al . 2009 b ). Although the molecular mechanism behind HGM is not fully understood, several studies suggest that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in the development of vascular HGM in diabetes ( Ihnat et al . 2007

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Sandra Zárate, Mariana Astiz, Natalia Magnani, Mercedes Imsen, Florencia Merino, Silvia Álvarez, Analía Reinés, and Adriana Seilicovich

reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. As an organ with a high demand of energy and low antioxidant capacity, the brain is particularly vulnerable to mitochondria dysfunction and oxidative stress, interdependent mechanisms that play a central role in

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Elena Grossini, Flavia Prodam, Gillian Elisabeth Walker, Lorenzo Sigaudo, Serena Farruggio, Kevin Bellofatto, Patrizia Marotta, Claudio Molinari, David Mary, Gianni Bona, and Giovanni Vacca

this respect, it is suggested that adipokines produced by adipose tissue would act as local ‘vasocrine’ agents in influencing a wide spectrum of hemodynamic, metabolic, and immunologic factors, including vascular reactivity, endothelial dysfunction, and

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V A Nunes, E P Portioli-Sanches, M P Rosim, M S Araujo, P Praxedes-Garcia, M M R Valle, L P Roma, C Hahn, E Gurgul-Convey, S Lenzen, and A K Azevedo-Martins

possible mechanisms by which progesterone exerts its effects on β-cells; however, studies have shown that this hormone is able to modulate the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress in different cell types ( Nguyen & Syed 2011

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Inmaculada C Villar, Adrian J Hobbs, and Amrita Ahluwalia

2 per se has multiple functions within the vasculature, not only as a potentially damaging reactive oxygen species, but also possibly as a physiological regulator of vascular reactivity including the regulation of vascular tone ( Miller et al

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Sandra Pereira, Anu Shah, I George Fantus, Jamie W Joseph, and Adria Giacca

, Gurzov et al . 2014 ), which occurs when the rate of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is greater than their removal ( Evans et al . 2002 ), and ROS cause insulin resistance ( Hansen et al . 1999 ). High-fat diet feeding in rodents is often

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Virginia Fernández, Gladys Tapia, Patricia Varela, Iván Castillo, Catalina Mora, Francisco Moya, Myriam Orellana, and Luis A Videla

Introduction Superoxide radical (O 2 •− ) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) are primary reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated as by-products in electron transfer processes, particularly mitochondrial respiration and microsomal

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Cun Li, Thomas J McDonald, Guoyao Wu, Mark J Nijland, and Peter W Nathanielsz

-W Jeong JK Dietrich MO Ruan H-B Kim E Suyama S Kelly K Gyengesi E Arbiser JL 2011 Peroxisome proliferation-associated control of reactive oxygen species sets melanocortin tone and feeding in diet-induced obesity . Nature Medicine