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Sergio Di Meo, Susanna Iossa, and Paola Venditti

treatment have been intensified. In addition to dietary regimes aimed at weight loss, two major non-pharmacological approaches to improve insulin sensitivity have included antioxidant supplementation and exercise training. In recent years, antioxidants

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Sung-Soo Park, Yeon-Joo Lee, Sooyeon Song, Boyong Kim, Hyuno Kang, Sejong Oh, and Eungseok Kim

activation, respectively, resulting in protection against HFD-induced obesity and fat accumulation in the liver, with improvement in insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, AMPK was shown to play a key role in LNS1-mediated regulation of PPARα and SREBP-1c

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Muraly Puttabyatappa, Robert M Sargis, and Vasantha Padmanabhan

offspring exhibit postnatal signs of reduced insulin sensitivity ( Tamhane et al . 2018 ). Evidence indicates that during pregnancy women with PCOS have higher androgen levels with associated disruptions in placental steroidogenesis ( Sir-Petermann et al

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Yoshinori Kanemaru, Norio Harada, Satoko Shimazu-Kuwahara, Shunsuke Yamane, Eri Ikeguchi, Yuki Murata, Sakura Kiyobayashi, Tomonobu Hatoko, and Nobuya Inagaki

composition, glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity under carbohydrate-based normal diet feeding condition using GIP-knockout mice. Materials and methods Animals GIP-knockout mice were generated previously ( Nasteska et al . 2014 ). GIP

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Claudia E Robert-Cooperman, Grace C Dougan, Shari L Moak, Mark G Athanason, Melanie N Kuehl, Harris Bell-Temin, Stanley M Stevens Jr, and Brant R Burkhardt

by GTT performed on 6-month-old mice, but both groups showed elevated glucose levels during the course of GTT as compared with the younger cohort ( Fig. 3 B). To evaluate peripheral insulin sensitivity, ITTs were performed. ITT results demonstrated

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Ljupka Gligorovska, Biljana Bursać, Sanja Kovačević, Nataša Veličković, Gordana Matić, and Ana Djordjevic

reporting that Mif - knockout mice display improved insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance ( Verschuren et al. 2009 , Kleemann & Bucala 2010 ). Although MIF synthesis and secretion are upregulated by the glucocorticoid hormones (GCs), MIF acts as

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M Skrzypski, M Billert, K W Nowak, and M Z Strowski

). Furthermore, orexin is required to maintain motor activity ( Hara et al . 2001 ) as well hypothalamic insulin signaling, which results in improvement of peripheral insulin sensitivity ( Tsuneki et al . 2008 ). Maintenance of body weight and energy

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Marco Hatem-Vaquero, Mercedes Griera, Andrea García-Jerez, Alicia Luengo, Julia Álvarez, José A Rubio, Laura Calleros, Diego Rodríguez-Puyol, Manuel Rodríguez-Puyol, and Sergio De Frutos

homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, fasting glycemia in mg/dL multiplied by fasting insulinemia in µU/mL, divided to 405) and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI, 1 divided to log fasting insulinemia in µU/mL plus

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Vivian Cristine Calegari, Claudio Cesar Zoppi, Luiz Fernando Rezende, Leonardo Reis Silveira, Everardo Magalhães Carneiro, and Antonio Carlos Boschero

skeletal muscle insulin action, ongoing evidence points toward its systemic effect in other tissues, which, in turn, are also involved in blood glucose homeostasis. In this sense, exercise increases liver insulin sensitivity ( Hoene et al . 2009 ) reducing

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Jay W Porter, Joe L Rowles III, Justin A Fletcher, Terese M Zidon, Nathan C Winn, Leighton T McCabe, Young-Min Park, James W Perfield II, John P Thyfault, R Scott Rector, Jaume Padilla, and Victoria J Vieira-Potter

.05). Exercise improves adipose tissue insulin sensitivity in FGF21KO mice Based on HOMA-IR values, FGF21KO mice were significantly more insulin-resistant than WT controls ( Fig. 1A ) and EX had a tendency ( P  = 0.112) to improve HOMA-IR in both genotypes