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Mahendra Prasad Bhatt, Yeon-Ju Lee, Se-Hui Jung, Yong Ho Kim, Jong Yun Hwang, Eun-Taek Han, Won Sun Park, Seok-Ho Hong, Young-Myeong Kim, and Kwon-Soo Ha

concentrations with insulin ( Wahren et al . 2012 , Bhatt et al . 2014 ). C-peptide and insulin deficiencies are typical comorbidities of type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) and the later stages of type 2 DM ( Bhatt et al . 2014 ). C-peptide replacement therapy

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Helena C Barbosa, Silvana Bordin, Gabriel Anhê, Shanta J Persaud, James Bowe, Maria I Borelli, Juan J Gagliardino, and Antonio C Boschero

with INGAP-PP showed both increased β-cell size and insulin secretion in response to glucose ( Borelli et al . 2005 ). Since islet transplantation for therapy of type 1 diabetes is hampered by the shortage of islet donors, the search for alternative

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C Y Shan, J H Yang, Y Kong, X Y Wang, M Y Zheng, Y G Xu, Y Wang, H Z Ren, B C Chang, and L M Chen

with type 1 diabetes- and insulin resistance-related diseases ( Watts et al . 2005 , Sapone et al . 2006 , Teixeira et al . 2012 , Caricilli & Saad 2013 ). Recent studies have linked gut microbes and bacterially derived LPS with host innate immune

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Neehar Gupta, Edward Park, Harmanjit Sandhu, Tracy Goh, Vaja Tchipashvili, and Adria Giacca

POR-REPL than with PER-REPL to attain euglycemia. Materials and Methods Experimental animals and preparation The studies were performed on six post-absorptive depancreatized male dogs (model of type 1 diabetes

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Aowen Zhuang and Josephine M Forbes

comorbidity of obesity. Type 1 diabetes The traditional notion of T1D as primarily an autoimmune disease in humans is currently being challenged and it is being tentatively labelled as an inflammatory pancreatic-wide disease ( Skog et al . 2013 ). Therefore

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Shaodong Guo

Program (NCEP); WHO, World Health Organization; IDF, International Diabetes Foundation. Patients with type 1 diabetes suffer from insulin deficiency, owing to pancreatic β-cell failure, and insulin is a primary and effective therapy to decrease

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Kleber L A Souza, Ewa Gurgul-Convey, Matthias Elsner, and Sigurd Lenzen

Introduction The pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1β, tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) and IFNγ, are putative mediators of the progressive loss of pancreatic β-cells in type 1 diabetes mellitus. These cytokines are released by macrophages and T

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Rita Sharma, Quyen Luong, Vishva M Sharma, Mitchell Harberson, Brian Harper, Andrew Colborn, Darlene E Berryman, Niels Jessen, Jens Otto Lunde Jørgensen, John J Kopchick, Vishwajeet Puri, and Kevin Y Lee

, Salgin et al. 2009 ). Although the dawn phenomenon was first described in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), recent studies utilizing the advent of continuous glucose monitoring systems has demonstrated the dawn phenomenon occurs in ~50% of patients with

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Georgios A Christou and Dimitrios N Kiortsis

levels in response to albuminuria in diabetics due to the type 2 diabetes-associated downregulation of serum adiponectin levels ( Hotta et al . 2000 ) and type 1 diabetes-associated upregulation of serum adiponectin levels ( Frystyk et al . 2005 ). In

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Chao Li, Bin Yang, Zhihao Xu, Eric Boivin, Mazzen Black, Wenlong Huang, Baoyou Xu, Ping Wu, Bo Zhang, Xian Li, Kunsong Chen, Yulian Wu, and Gina R Rayat

Introduction Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease that usually occurs in childhood, adolescence or young adulthood and accounts for approximately 10–15% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes ( Pociot & Lernmark 2016 ). In