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A K Katakam, G Chipitsyna, Q Gong, A R Vancha, J Gabbeta, and H A Arafat

et al. (2004) reported OPN among the genes specifically activated in the islets and lymph nodes in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. However, data concerning the early changes in OPN expression after diabetes induction and its functional significance

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Amy Hughes, Darling Rojas-Canales, Chris Drogemuller, Nicolas H Voelcker, Shane T Grey, and P T H Coates

, expression is more pronounced in the fetal setting ( Portela-Gomes & Hoog 2000 ). Interestingly, IGF2 expression declines in mice and rats postnatally and this correlates with increased β-cell apoptosis in vivo ( Petrik et al . 1998 , 1999 ), suggesting

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Liqiong Song, Wei Xia, Zhao Zhou, Yuanyuan Li, Yi Lin, Jie Wei, Zhengzheng Wei, Bing Xu, Jie Shen, Weiyong Li, and Shunqing Xu

Pigmans MJ Kersseboom R Drexhage HA Leenen PJ Homo-Delarche F 2001 Sex steroids influence pancreatic islet hypertrophy and subsequent autoimmune infiltration in nonobese diabetic (NOD) and NODscid mice . Laboratory Investigation 81 231

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Jia-Fwu Shyu, Hwai-Shi Wang, Yi-Ming Shyr, Shin-E Wang, Chia-Hsiang Chen, Joo-Shin Tan, Meng-Feng Lin, Po-Shiuan Hsieh, Huey-Kang Sytwu, and Tien-Hua Chen

HC Chi TC Chen CP Shyu JF Huang SW Shyr YM Tang KT Chen TH 2010 Transplantation of insulin producing cells derived from umbilical cord stromal mesenchymal stem cells to treat NOD mice . Cell Transplantation (In Press) doi:10

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Paige V Bauer and Frank A Duca

( Hauge et al . 2015 ). In addition to a direct action on FFARs, fatty acids are also taken up by the intestine, and mice lacking absorptive proteins such as CD36 or FAT4 results in impaired gut peptide release ( Poreba et al . 2012 , Sundaresan et al

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Kouki Mori, Katsumi Yoshida, Ayumi Komatsu, Jun-ichi Tani, Yoshinori Nakagawa, Saeko Hoshikawa, and Sadayoshi Ito

. Green EA , Eynon EE & Flavell RA 1998 Local expression of TNFα in neonatal NOD mice promotes diabetes by enhancing presentation of islet antigens. Immunity 9 733 –743. Guha M & Mackman N 2001 LPS induction of gene

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Rachel Botchlett, Shih-Lung Woo, Mengyang Liu, Ya Pei, Xin Guo, Honggui Li, and Chaodong Wu

fatty acid-enriched HFD to mice causes inflammation in various tissues and organs including the adipose tissue ( Xu et al. 2003 , Huo et al. 2010 ), the liver ( Cai et al. 2005 , Woo et al. 2014 , Guo et al. 2016 ), small intestine ( Guo et

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Eduardo Esteban-Zubero, Francisco Agustín García-Gil, Laura López-Pingarrón, Moisés Alejandro Alatorre-Jiménez, Pablo Iñigo-Gil, Dun-Xian Tan, José Joaquín García, and Russel J Reiter

concentrations and a reduction in membrane fluidity in pigs (García Gil et al. 2012). There are few studies related of the ability of melatonin to prevent pancreas graft rejection. It has been observed that in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, melatonin (200mg

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Cesidio Giuliani, Ines Bucci, Valeria Montani, Dinah S Singer, Fabrizio Monaco, Leonard D Kohn, and Giorgio Napolitano

Coulson AR 1977 DNA sequencing with chain-terminating inhibitors . PNAS 74 5463 – 5467 . Serreze DV Leiter EH Christianson G Greiner D Roopenian DC 1994 Major histocompatibility complex class-I-deficient NOD-B 2m null mice are

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M Asfari, S Berta, S Coffy, M Kergoat, C Charon, and A Audet

-, and xenografts in NOD/Lt female mice. Transplantation Proceedings 29 2161 –2162. Levisetti MG , Padrid PA, Szot GL, Mittal N, Meehan SM, Wardrip CL, Gray GS, Bruce DS, Thistlethwaite Jr JR & Bluestone JA 1997