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Masaki Nagaya, Hitoshi Katsuta, Hideaki Kaneto, Susan Bonner-Weir, and Gordon C Weir

Laboratories, Ltd., Peterborough, England) or DAPI (VECTASHIELD Mounting Medium with DAPI). Cultures processed with secondary antibodies only were used as negative controls. Liver and pancreas sections were stained as positive controls. Measurement of insulin

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Can Liu, Mian Zhang, Meng-yue Hu, Hai-fang Guo, Jia Li, Yun-li Yu, Shi Jin, Xin-ting Wang, Li Liu, and Xiao-dong Liu

herbals possessing sulfonylurea-like activity . Journal of Ethnopharmacology 93 337 – 344 . ( doi:10.1016/j.jep.2004.04.007 ) Rouillé Y Martin S Steiner DF 1995 Differential processing of proglucagon by the subtillisin-like prohormone

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Local control of thyroid hormone action: role of type 2 deiodinase

Deiodinases: the balance of thyroid hormone

Graham R Williams and J H Duncan Bassett

a pro-hormone that circulates at a high concentration in peripheral blood relative to the active hormone 3,5,3′- l -triiodothyronine (T 3 ). Concentrations of T 4 and T 3 in target tissues are controlled by metabolism; local conversion of T 4 to T

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Lorraine O’Driscoll, Patrick Gammell, Eadaoin McKiernan, Eoin Ryan, Per Bendix Jeppesen, Sweta Rani, and Martin Clynes

Chemistry 279 52677 –52684. Furukawa H , Carroll RJ, Swift HH & Steiner DF 1999 Long-term elevation of free fatty acids leads to delayed processing of proinsulin and prohormone convertases 2 and 3 in the pancreatic beta

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Hsiu-Chi Lee and Shaw-Jenq Tsai

biological processes such as organ development, stem cell maintenance, inflammation, aging, pulmonary disorder, cardiovascular disease, neuronal degeneration and cancer ( Semenza 2007 ). Hypoxic effects can be accounted for by two distinct pathways: hypoxia

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Anne H van der Spek, Eric Fliers, and Anita Boelen

gland mainly produces T 4 , which functions as a prohormone and requires conversion to T 3 to become biologically active, although a minor role for direct actions of T 4 has also been reported ( Davis et al . 2016 ). This conversion occurs at the

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Brenda Anguiano, Alejandra López, Guadalupe Delgado, Carlos Romero, and Carmen Aceves

(LNCaP), it has been demonstrated that T 3 and testosterone have synergistic effects on proliferation and cellular differentiation processes ( Zhang et al. 1999 ). Some of these effects are explained by the well-known stimulation of androgen receptor

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Thomas M Braxton, Dionne E A Sarpong, Janine L Dovey, Anne Guillou, Bronwen A J Evans, Juan M Castellano, Bethany E Keenan, Saja Baraghithy, Sam L Evans, Manuel Tena-Sempere, Patrice Mollard, Joseph Tam, and Timothy Wells

Rausch R Eddiry S Martin Carli JF Morabito MV Skowronski AA Hubner G , et al . 2017 Deficiency in prohormone convertase PC1 impairs prohormone processing in Prader-Willi syndrome . Journal of Clinical Investigation 293 – 305 . ( https

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Cyril S Anyetei-Anum, Vincent R Roggero, and Lizabeth A Allison

Introduction Thyroid hormone is essential for many diverse processes in nearly all vertebrate tissues, and abnormal thyroid hormone signaling underpins several human diseases ( Laudet & Gronemeyer 2002 , Chen et al . 2013 , Kim & Cheng 2013

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Ivan Quesada, Eva Tudurí, Cristina Ripoll, and Ángel Nadal

G Carroll R Ravazzola M Orci L Steiner DF 2001 Severe defect in proglucagon processing in islet A-cells of prohormone convertase 2 null mice . Journal of Biological Chemistry 276 27197 – 27202 . Gastaldelli A Baldi S Pettiti M