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M G Gnanalingham, A Mostyn, J Wang, R Webb, D H Keisler, N Raver, M C Alves-Guerra, C Pecqueur, B Miroux, T Stephenson, and M E Symonds

, which can lead to enhanced production of reactive oxygen species in β-cells ( Carlsson et al. 1999 , Barbu et al. 2002 ). UCP2 may be involved in this interaction by limiting the NEFA-stimulated increase in reactive oxygen species production by

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Stephen Mandang, Ursula Manuelpillai, and Euan M Wallace

effect by the antioxidants vitamin C and E confirms that oxidative stress was involved although precisely which reactive oxygen species are acting to increase activin has not been explored completely. That SOD did not mitigate the effects of X/XO was

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Anne H van der Spek, Eric Fliers, and Anita Boelen

here. The three main killing mechanisms utilized by neutrophils are degranulation, the production of reactive oxygen species and the generation of neutrophil extracellular traps ( Kolaczkowska & Kubes 2013 , Bardoel et al . 2014 ). Upon phagocytosis

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F S Raza, M Okamoto, H Takemori, and G P Vinson

). Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are antioxidants that protect the cell from cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS; McCord & Fridovich 1969 ). ROS are generated as byproducts of metabolic oxidation, causing extensive cellular injury. In mammals, the cytosolic

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Yi Lin and Zhongjie Sun

species Reactive oxygen species (ROS) may regulate insulin resistance. Several lines of evidence support the association of oxidative stress markers with diabetes ( Urakawa et al . 2003 , Furukawa et al . 2004 , Lin et al . 2005 ). Recent data showed

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Makiko Shimodahira, Shimpei Fujimoto, Eri Mukai, Yasuhiko Nakamura, Yuichi Nishi, Mayumi Sasaki, Yuichi Sato, Hiroki Sato, Masaya Hosokawa, Kazuaki Nagashima, Yutaka Seino, and Nobuya Inagaki

-induced insulin secretion ( Fig. 1 A). Insulin and DNA contents were not affected by 24-h exposure to 10, 30, and 100 nM rapamycin ( Table 1 ), indicating that these concentrations of rapamycin do not reduce islet β-cell mass. Reactive oxygen species (ROS

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Pongpan Tanajak, Piangkwan Sa-nguanmoo, Sivaporn Sivasinprasasn, Savitree Thummasorn, Natthaphat Siri-Angkul, Siriporn C Chattipakorn, and Nipon Chattipakorn

membrane potential; ND, normal diet; NDV, normal diet treated with vehicle; ROS, reactive oxygen species; TEM, transmission electron microscopy; TTC, triphenyltetrazolium chloride. Myocardial I/R surgical procedure Rats were anesthetized by

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Monique C Saleh, Michael B Wheeler, and Catherine B Chan

. It is also unclear whether UCP2 is a causal factor in β-cell dysfunction, although its absence is clearly associated with protection from lipotoxicity ( Joseph et al. 2002 , 2004 ) and reactive oxygen species (ROS; Krauss et al. 2003 ). We

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Daniel Simões, Patrícia Riva, Rodrigo Antonio Peliciari-Garcia, Vinicius Fernandes Cruzat, Maria Fernanda Graciano, Ana Claudia Munhoz, Marco Taneda, José Cipolla-Neto, and Angelo Rafael Carpinelli

is a highly diffusible hormone, may bind to the cell nucleus and has been shown to be a powerful antioxidant for biological systems. Acting as a scavenger of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS, respectively) ( Reiter et al. 2008

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Rebeca Martinez, Kenia Ubieta, Fidel Herrera, Alina Forellat, Reynold Morales, Ania de la Nuez, Rolando Rodriguez, Osvaldo Reyes, Ayme Oliva, and Mario P Estrada

tested (10 nM). Similarly, the stimulatory effect of the peptide, the increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS), was also evident in isolated tilapia peripheral blood leukocytes (data not shown). These results are consistent with those observed in