The heart is an insulin-dependent and energy-consuming organ in which insulin and nutritional signaling integrates to the regulation of cardiac metabolism, growth and survival. Heart failure is highly associated with insulin resistance, and heart failure patients suffer from the cardiac energy deficiency and structural and functional dysfunction. Chronic pathological conditions, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, involve various mechanisms in promoting heart failure by remodeling metabolic pathways, modulating cardiac energetics and impairing cardiac contractility. Recent studies demonstrated that insulin receptor substrates 1 and 2 (IRS-1,-2) are major mediators of both insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling responsible for myocardial energetics, structure, function and organismal survival. Importantly, the insulin receptor substrates (IRS) play an important role in the activation of the phosphatidylinositide-3-dependent kinase (PI-3K) that controls Akt and Foxo1 signaling cascade, regulating the mitochondrial function, cardiac energy metabolism and the renin–angiotensin system. Dysregulation of this branch in signaling cascades by insulin resistance in the heart through the endocrine system promotes heart failure, providing a novel mechanism for diabetic cardiomyopathy. Therefore, targeting this branch of IRS→PI-3K→Foxo1 signaling cascade and associated pathways may provide a fundamental strategy for the therapeutic and nutritional development in control of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. In this review, we focus on insulin signaling and resistance in the heart and the role energetics play in cardiac metabolism, structure and function.
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- Abstract: Diabetes x
- Abstract: Islets x
- Abstract: Insulin x
- Abstract: BetaCells x
- Abstract: Pancreas x
- Abstract: Obesity x
- Abstract: Glucose x
- Abstract: Hyperglycemia x
- Abstract: Hypoglycemia x
- Abstract: Insulinoma x
- Abstract: Glucagon x
- Abstract: IGF* x
- Abstract: Type 1 x
- Abstract: Type 2 x
Cathy A Guo and Shaodong Guo
R. D. G. MILNER, A. J. BARSON and M. A. ASHWORTH
Pieces of human foetal pancreas were incubated under control conditions and in media containing different stimuli of insulin release. Insulin secretion was stimulated from the pancreases of foetuses (83–625 g body weight) which were of 16–24 weeks gestational age. Potassium (60 mmol/l), barium (2·54 mmol/l) and ouabain (10−5 mol/l) were effective stimuli in all experiments. Glucagon (5 μg/ml), theophylline (1 mmol/l) and dibutyryl 3′,5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (1 mmol/l) stimulated insulin secretion in media containing 0, 0·6 or 3·0 mg glucose/ml. Theophylline and dibutyryl 3′,5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate were effective in all experients and glucagon stimulated insulin release in four out of six experiments. At all ages studied, histological examination of the pancreas after each experiment revealed islets of Langerhans containing β cells. In most cases the islets were of the mantle type but occasionally bipolar islets were seen. Cellular normality, as judged by light microscopy, was preserved after periods of incubation for up to 5½ h. Glycogen was demonstrable in the pancreatic acinar tissue but not in the islets.
The results of these experiments indicate that, between the 16th and 24th week of foetal life, the human β cell is capable of releasing insulin in vitro when stimulated appropriately.
Tamiki Hikake, Shinji Hayashi, Taisen Iguchi and Tomomi Sato
IGF1 knockout (IGF1KO) mice show a reduced number of prolactin (PRL) producing cells (PRL cells); however, the role of IGF1 in PRL cell proliferation and differentiation in immature mice is unclear. In this study, ontogenic changes in the percentages of PRL cells, GH producing cells (GH cells), and 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled cells in the anterior pituitary of male IGF1KO mice during the postnatal period were investigated. The percentage of PRL cells in IGF1KO mice was significantly lower at day 20 compared with that in wild-type (WT) mice, while GH cells in IGF1KO mice were significantly increased from day 10. From days 5 to 20, the percentage of BrdU-labeled cells in WT and IGF1KO mice was similar. PRL cells and GH cells are thought to originate from the same progenitor cells, therefore, PRL cells in IGF1KO mice are not able to differentiate because progenitor cells have already committed to be GH cells. However, IGF1, 17β-estradiol (E2), epidermal growth factor (EGF), or IGF1 plus E2 treatments increased the PRL cell number in the pituitaries in vitro of 10-day-old WT and IGF1KO mice. This fact suggests that these factors are involved in PRL cell proliferation and differentiation. In addition, the increase of PRL cells in IGF1KO mice stimulated by E2 or EGF was less than that of WT mice. Thus, IGF1 plays a crucial role in PRL cell proliferation and differentiation in mouse pituitaries by regulating the differentiation of progenitor cells and mediating the actions of E2 and EGF.
Ruben Rodriguez, Jacqueline N Minas, Jose Pablo Vazquez-Medina, Daisuke Nakano, David G Parkes, Akira Nishiyama and Rudy M Ortiz
Obesity is associated with the inappropriate activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), which increases arterial pressure, impairs insulin secretion and decreases peripheral tissue insulin sensitivity. RAS blockade reverses these detriments; however, it is not clear whether the disease state of the organism and treatment duration determine the beneficial effects of RAS inhibition on insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the benefits of acute vs chronic angiotensin receptor type 1 (AT1) blockade started after the onset of obesity, hyperglycemia and hypertension on pancreatic function and peripheral insulin resistance. We assessed adipocyte morphology, glucose intolerance, pancreatic redox balance and insulin secretion after 2 and 11 weeks of AT1 blockade in the following groups of rats: (1) untreated Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (lean control; n = 10), (2) untreated Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF; n = 12) and (3) OLETF + ARB (ARB; 10 mg olmesartan/kg/day by oral gavage; n = 12). Regardless of treatment duration, AT1 blockade decreased systolic blood pressure and fasting plasma triglycerides, whereas chronic AT1 blockade decreased fasting plasma glucose, glucose intolerance and the relative abundance of large adipocytes by 22, 36 and 70%, respectively. AT1 blockade, however, did not improve pancreatic oxidative stress or reverse impaired insulin secretion. Collectively, these data show that AT1 blockade after the onset of obesity, hyperglycemia and hypertension improves peripheral tissue insulin sensitivity, but cannot completely reverse the metabolic derangement characterized by impaired insulin secretion once it has been compromised.
BD Rodgers, M Bernier and MA Levine
Adipocyte beta-adrenergic sensitivity is compromised in animal models of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Although changes in the membrane concentrations of G-protein alpha subunits (Galpha) have been implicated, it remains to be determined how these changes are affected by insulin resistance in the different animal models. Because previous studies used young animals, we measured the concentrations of Galpha and Gbeta subunits in epididymal fat from aged (48 weeks old) db/db mice and from their lean littermates to more closely reproduce the model of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Levels of immunoreactive Galphas, Galphai(1/2), Galphao and Galphaq/11 were all significantly greater in adipocyte membranes from the db/db mice than in membranes from their lean non-diabetic littermate controls. Levels of Galphai(1) and Galphai(2) were also individually determined and although they appeared to be slightly higher in db/db membranes, these differences were not significant. Although the levels of both Galphas isoforms were elevated, levels of the 42 and 46 kDa proteins rose by approximately 42% and 20% respectively, indicating differential protein processing of Galphas. By contrast, levels of Galphai3 were similar in the two groups. The levels of common Gbeta and Gbeta2 were also elevated in db/db mice, whereas Gbeta1 and Gbeta4 levels were not different. To determine whether these changes were due to insulin resistance per se or to elevated glucocorticoid production, G-protein subunit levels were quantified in whole cell lysates from 3T3-L1 adipocytes that were stimulated with different concentrations of either insulin or corticosterone. Although none of the subunit levels was affected by insulin, the levels of both Galphas isoforms were increased equally by corticosterone in a concentration-dependent manner. Since glucocorticoids are known regulators of Galphas gene expression in many cell types and in adipocytes from diabetic rodents, the results presented herein appear to more accurately reflect diabetic pathophysiology than do those of previous studies which report a decrease in Galphas levels. Taken together, these results indicate that most of the selective changes in G-protein subunit production in adipocytes from this animal model of type 2 diabetes may not be due to diminished insulin sensitivity, but may be due to other endocrine or metabolic abnormalities associated with the diabetic phenotype.
Susan Kralisch, Anke Tönjes, Kerstin Krause, Judit Richter, Ulrike Lossner, Peter Kovacs, Thomas Ebert, Matthias Blüher, Michael Stumvoll and Mathias Fasshauer
Rather than a traditional growth factor, fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21) is considered to be a metabolic hormone. In the current study, we investigated serum FGF21 levels in the self-contained population of Sorbs. Serum FGF21 concentrations were quantified by ELISA and correlated with IGF1 as well as metabolic, renal, hepatic, inflammatory, and cardiovascular parameters in 913 Sorbs from Germany. Moreover, human IGF1 protein secretion was investigated in FGF21-stimulated HepG2 cells. Median FGF21 serum concentrations were 2.1-fold higher in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (141.8 ng/l) compared with controls (66.7 ng/l). Furthermore, nondiabetic subjects with FGF21 levels below the detection limit of the ELISA showed a more beneficial metabolic profile compared with subjects with measurable FGF21. Moreover, FGF21 was significantly lower in female compared with male subjects after adjustment for age and BMI. In multiple regression analyses, circulating FGF21 concentrations remained independently and positively associated with gender, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, and γ glutamyl transferase whereas a negative association was observed with IGF1 in nondiabetic subjects. Notably, FGF21 significantly inhibited IGF1 secretion into HepG2 cell culture supernatants in preliminary in vitro experiments. FGF21 serum concentrations are associated with facets of the metabolic syndrome, hepatocellular function, as well as GH status.
Saeed Alshahrani and Mauricio Di Fulvio
The intracellular chloride concentration ([Cl−]i) in β-cells plays an important role in glucose-stimulated plasma membrane depolarisation and insulin secretion. [Cl−]i is maintained above equilibrium in β-cells by the action of Cl− co-transporters of the solute carrier family 12 group A (Slc12a). β-Cells express Slc12a1 and Slc12a2, which are known as the bumetanide (BTD)-sensitive Na+-dependent K+2Cl− co-transporters 2 and 1 respectively. We show that mice lacking functional alleles of the Slc12a2 gene exhibit better fasting glycaemia, increased insulin secretion in response to glucose, and improved glucose tolerance when compared with wild-type (WT). This phenomenon correlated with increased sensitivity of β-cells to glucose in vitro and with increased β-cell mass. Further, administration of low doses of BTD to mice deficient in Slc12a2 worsened their glucose tolerance, and low concentrations of BTD directly inhibited glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from β-cells deficient in Slc12a2 but expressing intact Slc12a1 genes. Together, our results suggest for the first time that the Slc12a2 gene is not necessary for insulin secretion and that its absence increases β-cell secretory capacity. Further, impairment of insulin secretion with BTD in vivo and in vitro in islets lacking Slc12a2 genes unmasks a potential new role for Slc12a1 in β-cell physiology.
Jennifer A Crookshank, Daniel Serrano, Gen-Sheng Wang, Christopher Patrick, Baylie S Morgan, Marie-France Paré and Fraser W Scott
It is unknown whether there is a gene signature in pancreas which is associated with type 1 diabetes (T1D). We performed partial pancreatectomies on 30-day preinsulitic, diabetes-prone BioBreeding (BBdp) rats to prospectively identify factors involved in early prediabetes. Microarrays of the biopsies revealed downregulation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, metabolism and apoptosis. Based on these results, additional investigations compared gene expression in control (BBc) and BBdp rats age ~8, 30 and 60 days using RT-qPCR. Neonates had increased ER stress gene expression in pancreas. This was associated with decreased insulin, cleaved caspase-3 and Ins1 whereas Gcg and Pcsk2 were increased. The increase in ER stress was not sustained at 30 days and decreased by 60 days. In parallel, the liver gene profile showed a similar signature in neonates but with an early decrease of the unfolded protein response (UPR) at 30 days. This suggested that changes in the liver precede those in the pancreas. Tnf and Il1b expression was increased in BBdp pancreas in association with increased caspase-1, cleaved caspase-3 and decreased proinsulin area. Glucagon area was increased in both 30-day and 60-day BBdp rats. Increased colocalization of BIP and proinsulin was observed at 60 days in the pancreas, suggesting insulin-related ER dysfunction. We propose that dysregulated metabolism leads to ER stress in neonatal rats long before insulitis, creating a microenvironment in both pancreas and liver that promotes autoimmunity.
A. HOWE and A. J. THODY
The changes in the content of melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) and histology of the neuro-intermediate (n.i.) lobe were followed in rats which drank 2% sodium chloride for periods from 1–15 days.
The pars intermedia showed a biphasic response. During the initial phase of 1–4 days there was a rapid rise in the MSH content, by 153% in the first day, falling back to control level by 4 days. These fluctuations were paralleled by an increase in the normally small numbers of Type 2 cells and at the same time numerous Type I cells showed hypertrophy and degranulation.
After 4 days on saline there was a second rise in the MSH content, which was still evident at 15 days; during this second period the number of Type 2 cells declined to normal levels. The degranulated Type 1 cells also disappeared, most of Type 1 being smaller in size and intensely PAS-positive.
After the ingestion of saline it apparently takes several days before the pars intermedia adapts to a new level of activity.
The likely significance of these changes and the possibility of a relationship between the pars intermedia and the neurohypophysis are discussed.
Brenda Anguiano, Alejandra López, Guadalupe Delgado, Carlos Romero and Carmen Aceves
The aim of this study was to characterize the type of 5′-deiodinase activity in the prostate of pubescent rats (7–8 weeks), to establish its distribution in the lobes (ventral, dorsolateral, and anterior), and to analyze its modulation by prolactin (PRL), testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and 17β-estradiol (E2). Our results showed that the enzymatic activity was highly susceptible to inhibition by 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil and gold thioglucose, its preferential substrate was reverse tri-iodothyronine (rT3), it exhibited a low dithiothreitol requirement (5 mM), and the apparent K m and V max values for substrate (rT3) were approximately 0.25 μM and 9.0 pmol liberated/mg protein per hour, respectively. All these characteristics indicate the preferential expression of type 1 deiodinase (D1), which was corroborated by demonstrating the presence of D1 mRNA in prostate. D1 activity was detected in all lobes and was most abundant in the dorsolateral. Although we detected type 2 deiodinase (D2) mRNA expression, the D2 activity was almost undetectable. D1 activity was enhanced in animals with hyperthyroidism and hyperprolactinemia, in intact animals treated with finasteride (inhibitor of local DHT production), and in castrated animals with E2 replacement. In contrast, activity diminished in castrated animals with testosterone replacement. Our results suggest that thyroid hormones, PRL, and E2 exert a positive modulation on D1 activity, while testosterone and DHT exhibit an inhibitory effect. D1 activity may be associated with prostate maturation and/or function.