Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the most common cause of end-stage kidney disease worldwide, and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in patients with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Increasing prevalence of diabetes has made the need for effective treatment of DN critical and thereby identifying new therapeutic targets to improve clinical management. Autophagy is a highly conserved ‘self-eating’ pathway by which cells degrade and recycle macromolecules and organelles. Autophagy serves as an essential mechanism to maintain homeostasis of glomeruli and tubules, and plays important roles in human health and diseases. Impairment of autophagy is implicated in the pathogenesis of DN. Emerging body of evidence suggests that targeting the autophagic pathway to activate and restore autophagy activity may be renoprotective. In this review, we examine current advances in our understanding of the roles of autophagy in diabetic kidney injury, focusing on studies in renal cells in culture, human kidney tissues, and experimental animal models of diabetes. We discuss the major nutrient-sensing signal pathways and diabetes-induced altered intracellular metabolism and cellular events, including accumulation of advanced glycation end-products, increased oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, hypoxia, and activation of the renin–angiotensin system, which modulate autophagic activity and contribute to the development of DN. We also highlight recent studies of autophagy and transforming growth factor-β in renal fibrosis, the final common response to injury that ultimately leads to end-stage kidney failure in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. These findings suggest the possibility that autophagy can be a therapeutic target against DN.
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- Abstract: Diabetes x
- Abstract: Islets x
- Abstract: Insulin x
- Abstract: BetaCells x
- Abstract: Pancreas x
- Abstract: Obesity x
- Abstract: Glucose x
- Abstract: Hyperglycemia x
- Abstract: Hypoglycemia x
- Abstract: Insulinoma x
- Abstract: Glucagon x
- Abstract: IGF* x
- Abstract: Type 1 x
- Abstract: Type 2 x
Yan Ding and Mary E Choi
Joshua Columbus, YuTing Chiang, Weijuan Shao, Nina Zhang, Dingyan Wang, Herbert Y Gaisano, Qinghua Wang, David M Irwin and Tianru Jin
Specific single-nucleotide polymorphisms in intronic regions of human TCF7L2 are associated with an elevated risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Whether Tcf7l2 is expressed in pancreatic islets of rodent species at a considerable level, however, remains controversial. We used RT-PCR and quantitative RT-PCR to examine Tcf7l2 expression in rodent gut, pancreas, isolated pancreatic islets, and cultured cell lines. The expression level of Tcf7l2 was relatively lower in the pancreas compared to the gut or the pancreatic β-cell line Ins-1. Immunostaining did not detect a Tcf7l2 signal in mouse pancreatic islets. Endogenous canonical Wnt activity was not appreciable in the pancreas of TOPGAL transgenic mice. Both Tcf7 and Tcf7l1, but not Lef1, were expressed in the pancreas. The expression of the three Tcf genes (Tcf7, Tcf7l1, and Tcf7l2) in the pancreas was reduced by treatment with insulin or high-fat diet feeding, in contrast to the stimulation of Tcf7l2 expression by insulin in the gut. We suggest that hyperinsulinemia represses Tcf gene expression in the pancreas. Whether and how this reduction alters the function of pancreatic β cells during hyperinsulinemia deserves further investigation.
TY Tai, JY Lu, CL Chen, MY Lai, PJ Chen, JH Kao, CZ Lee, HS Lee, LM Chuang and YM Jeng
This study aimed at elucidating the effects of interferon (IFN)-alpha on glucose metabolism in patients with chronic hepatitis B and C infections. Twenty-eight biopsy-proven patients with chronic hepatitis B (ten cases) and hepatitis C (18 cases) were given IFN-alpha for a total of 24 weeks. The patients received a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), glucagon stimulation test, tests for type 1 diabetes-related autoantibodies and an insulin suppression test before and after IFN-alpha therapy. Ten of the 28 patients responded to IFN-alpha therapy. Steady-state plasma glucose of the insulin suppression test decreased significantly in responders (13.32+/-1.48 (S.E.M.) vs 11.33+/-1.19 mmol/l, P=0.0501) but not in non-responders (12.29+/-1.24 vs 11.11+/-0.99 mmol/l, P=0.2110) immediately after completion of IFN-alpha treatment. In the oral glucose tolerance test, no significant difference was observed in plasma glucose in either responders (10.17+/-0.23 vs 10.03+/-0.22 mmol/l) or non-responders (10.11+/-0.22 vs 9.97+/-0.21 mmol/l) 3 Months after completion of IFN-alpha treatment. However, significant differences were noted in C-peptide in both responders (2.90+/-0.13 vs 2.20+/-0.09 nmol/l, P=0.0040) and non-responders (2.45+/-0.11 vs 2.22+/-0.08 nmol/l, P=0.0287) before vs after treatment. The changes of C-peptide in an OGTT between responders and non-responders were also significantly different (P=0.0028), with responders reporting a greater reduction in C-peptide. No case developed autoantibodies during the treatment. In patients who were successfully treated with IFN-alpha, insulin sensitivity improved and their plasma glucose stayed at the same level without secreting as much insulin from islet beta-cells.
SH Torres, JB De Sanctis, L M de Briceno, N Hernandez and HJ Finol
An inflammatory process may be involved in nitric oxide production in skeletal muscle of type 2 diabetic patients. Nitric oxide generation in skeletal muscle was assessed in 14 non-complicated type 2 diabetic patients and in 12 healthy subjects. In samples of quadriceps femoris muscle, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), nitrite, nitrate and nitrotyrosine were determined. The macrophage-specific antigen CD163, the T-cell membrane factor CD154 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) were also assayed. In six patients, ultrastructural analysis of muscle was performed. Nitrites and nitrates were increased in patients as compared to controls (22.7+/-4.5 and 32.7+/-7.0 vs 16.0+/-2.9 and 22.8+/-4.0 micromol/mg protein; P<0.001, Mann-Whitney U test). Endothelial NOS was similar in diabetic and control subjects (36.4+/-13.8 vs 36.3+/-6.8 ng/mg protein), contrasting with the significant increase of iNOS recorded in patients (34.3+/-13.0 vs 8.5+/-2.8 ng/mg protein, P<0.00002). Nitrotyrosine levels were higher in the patient than in the control group (42.1+/-24.4 vs 10.3+/-2.5 ng/mg protein, P<0.00002), as were CD163 (10-fold) and TNF-alpha (fourfold) levels. Furthermore, CD154 levels were detectable only in the patient samples (10.2+/-5.3 ng/mg protein). By multiple-regression analysis, changes in glycated haemoglobin values could predict 96% variation in nitrotyrosine. Macrophages were present in all muscle samples analysed by electromicroscopy. The increased levels of CD163, CD154 and TNF-alpha indicate that an inflammatory process occurs in skeletal muscle of type 2 diabetic patients. This may contribute to iNOS induction, muscle damage and insulin resistance.
P Scherzer, I Nachliel, H Bar-On, MM Popovtzer and E Ziv
Psammomys obesus, a desert rodent, develops diabetes when displaced from its natural environment and fed a high energy diet in the laboratory. This study was designed to examine variations in renal function in relation to the diabetic state with emphasis on changes in Na-K-ATPase activity. The following groups of Psammomys were studied: (1) Animals fed a saltbush diet; a low energy/high salt diet (natural). (2) Animals fed a low energy/low salt diet (laboratory). Both 1 and 2 were normoglycemic and normoinsulinemic and thus served as control. (3) Animals fed a high energy diet (group C) who were hyperglycemic and hyperinsulinemic; this group was divided into two subgroups: C1 presented with glomerular hyperfiltration rate and C2 with glomerular hypofiltration rate. (4) Animals fed a high energy diet presenting with hyperglycemia-hypoinsulinemia (group D). (5) Group D+I, similar to group D but treated with external insulin (2 U/24 h). Groups D and C1, whose glomerular filtration rose above normal by 30% and 70% respectively, exhibited metabolic similarity to Type I and Type II diabetes. In these groups, Na-K-ATPase activity in the cortex increased by 80-100% and in the medulla by 180% (P<0.001 vs control). In group C2 with reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR), Na-K-ATPase activity did not differ from control. In group D+I, with normalized glomerular filtration rate, Na-K-ATPase activity was similar to control. There was a linear and significant correlation between GFR and Na-K-ATPase activity both in the cortex and in the medulla. These experiments present a well defined animal model of diabetes mellitus. Variations in glucose and in insulin did not correlate with Na-K-ATPase activity. These results clearly demonstrated that Na-K-ATPase activity in the diabetic Psammomys was determined by glomerular filtration but was independent of plasma glucose or insulin levels.
T Tsushima, M Arai, O Isozaki, Y Nozoe, K Shizume, H Murakami, N Emoto, M Miyakawa and H Demura
Although endothelins were originally discovered as peptides with vasoconstrictor activity, recent studies have indicated a number of endothelin (ET)-induced hormonal functions in various tissues. We have studied the interaction of endothelins with porcine thyroid cells in culture. Specific binding of 125I-labelled ET-1 was demonstrated in porcine thyroid cells. The binding was displaced equally by unlabelled ET-1 and ET-2, but receptor affinity for ET-3 was lower than that for ET-1 and -2. Scatchard analysis of the data revealed a single class of high-affinity ET-1 receptors with a K d of 0·45 nmol/l and a binding capacity of 2100 sites/cell. SDS-PAGE and autoradiography of 125I-labelled ET-1 cross-linked with thyroid cell membranes demonstrated ET-1 binding sites with an apparent molecular weight of 50 kDa. These results indicated that ET-1 receptors in thyroid cells are type A ET receptors. In association with the presence of ET-1 receptors, porcine thyroid cells responded to ET-1 and ET-2 with an increase in c-fos mRNA expression. Although ET-1 did not affect DNA synthesis stimulated by either EGF or IGF-I, it dose-dependently inhibited TSH-induced iodide uptake and also inhibited iodide uptake stimulated by forskolin and 8-bromo-cAMP. ET-1 had no effect on TSH-stimulated cAMP production. Thus, ET-1 inhibited TSH-induced iodine metabolism by acting at the steps distal to cAMP production. In agreement with a recent report, immunoreactive ET-1 was detected in medium conditioned by porcine thyroid cells. Antibody to ET-1 was found to increase TSH-induced iodide uptake. These results are compatible with the notion that ET-1 negatively regulates TSH-induced iodide uptake in an autocrine manner.
Journal of Endocrinology (1994) 142, 463–470
Ashley Gray, William J Aronson, R James Barnard, Hemal Mehta, Junxiang Wan, Jonathan Said, Pinchas Cohen and Colette Galet
Circulating insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 (IGFBP1) levels vary in response to nutritional status, and pre-clinical studies suggest that elevated IGFBP1 may be protective against the development and progression of prostate cancer. We hypothesized that global deletion of Igfbp1 would accelerate the development of prostate cancer in a c-Myc transgenic mouse model. To test our hypothesis, c-Myc transgenic mice (Myc/BP-1 wild-type (WT)) were crossed and interbred with the Igfbp1 knockout mice (Myc/BP-1 KO). The animals were placed on a high-protein diet at weaning, weighed every 2 weeks, and euthanized at 16 weeks of age. Prostate histopathology was assessed and proliferation status was determined by Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen analyses. IGF-related serum biomarkers and body composition were measured. No significant difference in the incidence of prostate cancer was observed between the Myc/BP-1 KO and the Myc/BP-1 WT mice (65 and 80% respectively, P=0.48). Proliferation was significantly decreased by 71% in prostate tissue of Myc/BP-1 KO mice compared with Myc/BP-1 WT mice. Myc/BP-1 KO mice exhibited a significant 6.7% increase in body weight relative to the Myc/BP-1 WT mice that was attributed to an increase in fat mass. Fasting insulin levels were higher in the Myc/BP-1 KO mice without any difference between the groups in fasting glucose concentrations. Thus, contrary to our hypothesis, global deletion of Igfbp1 in a c-Myc transgenic mouse model did not accelerate the development of prostate cancer. Global Igfbp1 deletion did result in a significant increase in body weight and body fat mass. Further studies are required to understand the underlying mechanisms for these metabolic effects.
S. R. Crosby, C. D. Anderton, M. Westwood, J. M. P. Holly, S. C. Cwyfan Hughes, M. Gibson, C. A. Morrison, R. J. Young and A. White
An immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) for the measurement of insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) in human plasma has been developed, optimized and evaluated clinically in normal subjects and patients with disorders of the GH/IGF-I axis. Six monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to recombinant human IGF-II (rhIGF-II) were produced, all of which had low cross-reactivity with rhIGF-I (< 0·01%) and insulin (< 0·01%). Compatibility of pairs of MAbs was tested in two-site IRMAs using three radioiodinated MAbs and three MAbs linked to Sephacryl S-300 (with separation of bound and free radiolabelled MAb by sucrose layering). Seven pairs of MAbs bound rhIGF-II and the combination of 125I-labelled W3D9 and W2H1 linked to solid phase was selected. The optimized assay had a completion time of 4 h, a minimum detection limit of 30 ng/ml (2·5 standard deviations from the zero standard) and detected a single peak of endogenous IGF-II in normal plasma which co-eluted with rhIGF-II after acid gel chromatography.
IGF-II was measured in formic acid/acetone extracts of plasma from 16 normal subjects (mean 685, range 516–1008 μg/l), four acromegalic patients (mean 637, range 553–700 μg/l), fourteen patients with type-1 diabetes (mean 635, range 247–753 μg/l), nine patients with uraemia (mean 423, range 78–850 μg/l), and three patients with Laron-type GH insensitivity (75, 35 and 36 μg/l). No significant fluctuations were detected between samples obtained hourly from 08.00 to 19.00 h in normal subjects.
Low levels of IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) remaining in plasma extracts may interfere with the measurement of IGF-II and give rise to falsely elevated IGF-II levels in radioimmunoassays or falsely suppressed levels in IRMAs. Such interference did not occur with the IRMA when used to measure IGF-II in extracts from normal subjects, acromegalic patients and patients with type-1 diabetes, and the addition of excess rhIGF-I in order to displace IGF-II from residual IGFBPs had no effect on IGF-II measurements in these samples. However, levels of IGF-II measured in extracts from patients with Laron-type GH insensitivity and patients with uraemia increased markedly after preincubation with excess rhIGF-I. The accurate measurement of IGF-II by IRMA in extracts from these subjects therefore requires the displacement of IGF-II from IGFBPs prior to assay. We conclude that, in contrast to radioimmunoassays, the two-site IRMA developed here provides a practical, rapid and specific method for the measurement of IGF-II in human plasma.
Journal of Endocrinology (1993) 137, 141–150
Hui-Fang Wang, Qing-Qing Yu, Rui-Fang Zheng and Ming Xu
Cardiovascular complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are associated with vascular remodeling in the arteries. Perivascular sympathetic neurons release an abundance of trophic factors to regulate vascular function via a paracrine signaling. Netrin-1, a diffusible protein that can be secreted outside the cell, is one of common signals of ‘conversation’ between nerve and vessel. The present study investigated whether netrin-1 is a novel modulator of sympathetic neurons paracrine signaling and played a critical role in vascular adventitial remodeling under T2DM. Vascular adventitial remodeling was observed in adventitial fibroblasts (AFs) responding to netrin-1 deficiency in the supernatant from primary rat superior cervical ganglia (SCG) neurons, shown as AFs proliferation, migration, and collagen deposition. Conditioned medium from the high glucose (HG)-treated SCG neurons contributed to AFs remodeling, which was effectively alleviated by exogenous netrin-1 supplementation. Further, it was found that uncoordinated-5-B (Unc5b) was mainly expressed in AFs among netrin-1 specific receptors. Treatment of netrin-1 inhibited H2O2 production derived from NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) through the UNC5b/CAMP/PKA signal pathway in AFs remodeling. In vivo, aorta adventitial remodeling was accompanied with the downregulation of netrin-1 in the perivascular sympathetic nerve in T2DM rats. Such abnormalities were restored by netrin-1 intervention, which was associated with the inhibition of NOX4 expression in the aorta adventitia. In conclusion, netrin-1 is a novel modulator of sympathetic neurons paracrine signaling to maintain AFs function. Vascular adventitial remodeling was aggravated by sympathetic neurons paracrine signaling under hyperglycemia, which was ameliorated by netrin-1 treatment through the UNC5b/CAMP/PKA/NOX4 pathway.
RN Kulkarni, ZL Wang, RM Wang, DM Smith, MA Ghatei and SR Bloom
We have studied the effects of first and second generation sulphonylureas on the release of insulin and neuropeptide tyrosine (NPY) from hamster insulinoma tumour (HIT T15) cells and isolated rat islets. In the presence of 5.5 mmol/l glucose all sulphonylureas stimulated insulin release from the HIT cells (P<0.01 ANOVA, n> or =4) but only glibenclamide (GLIB, 10 micromol/l) stimulated the release of NPY (mean+/-s.e.m. control 11.1+/-1.3 vs GLIB 28.4+/-4.1 fmol/h per 10(6) cells, P<0001, n=16). In isolated perifused rat islets both glibenclamide (10 micromol/l) (control 3.5+/-0.3 vs GLIB 6. 3+/-0.2 fmol/min per islet, P<0.01, n=6) and tolbutamide (50 micromol/l) (control 4.7+/-0.1 vs TOLB 6.7+/-0.3 fmol/min per islet, P<0.01, n=6) enhanced glucose (8 mmol/l)-stimulated insulin release. However, only glibenclamide stimulated the release of NPY from the islets (control 3.4+/-0.8 vs GLIB 24.5+/-5 attomol/min per islet, P<0.01, n=6). Similar results were obtained in islets isolated from dexamethasonetreated rats. Glibenclamide treatment of HIT cells showed a prompt insulin release (10 min) while NPY secretion was slower (60 min), suggesting that internalization of the sulphonylurea is required to stimulate NPY release. Glibenclamide, the most common oral therapeutic agent in type 2 diabetes mellitus, is associated with release of the autocrine insulin secretion inhibitor, NPY.