High (pharmacological) doses of glucocorticoids inhibit the proliferation of growth plate chondrocytes, which leads to one of the side-effects of these steroids, namely suppression of longitudinal growth. Growth inhibition by glucocorticoids is thought to be mediated in part by impaired action of components of the IGF axis, which are important for chondrocyte regulation and hence for longitudinal growth. The aim of the present study was to determine whether glucocorticoid-induced growth retardation involves changes in IGF axis components. Chondrocytes were isolated from epiphyseal growth plates of neonatal piglets and treated with pharmacological doses of dexamethasone (DXM) for 24 h to study glucocorticoid-induced growth retardation. Under IGF-I-supplemented (10 nM) culture conditions, IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs)-2, -4 and -5 were secreted by the growth plate chondrocytes and IGFBP-2 protein and mRNA levels were decreased by the DXM treatment, whereas IGFBP-4 and -5 were not affected. Proliferation of the chondrocytes, as measured by [(3)H]thymidine incorporation, was 3.5-fold higher in serum-supplemented medium in contrast to IGF-I-supplemented (10 nM) medium. In the presence of serum, DNA synthesis was significantly inhibited by 50-63% when treated with 100 nM DXM, which was prevented by the glucocorticoid-receptor antagonist Org34116. mRNA levels of IGF axis components were determined using Northern blot analysis. IGFBP-2 to -6 were expressed in the chondrocytes, IGFBP-1 was absent and both IGF-I and IGF-II, and the type I and type II IGF receptors were expressed. Treatment with DXM (100 nM) resulted in a 2-fold increase in mRNA levels of both IGFBP-5 and the type I IGF receptor, whereas IGFBP-2 mRNA levels decreased by 55%, in concert with the decrease in protein level observed under IGF-I-supplemented culture conditions. The changes in mRNA levels due to the DXM treatment were prevented by the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist. Our data show that exposure to pharmacological doses of DXM results in inhibition of proliferation and changes in components of the IGF axis, IGFBP-2 and -5 and the type I IGF receptor, suggesting a role for these components in glucocorticoid-induced growth retardation at the local level of the growth plate.
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- Abstract: Diabetes x
- Abstract: Islets x
- Abstract: Insulin x
- Abstract: BetaCells x
- Abstract: Pancreas x
- Abstract: Obesity x
- Abstract: Hyperglycemia x
- Abstract: Hypoglycemia x
- Abstract: Insulinoma x
- Abstract: Glucagon x
- Abstract: IGF* x
- Abstract: Type 1 x
- Abstract: Type 2 x
JJ Smink, JA Koedam, JG Koster and SC van Buul-Offers
Anna Milanesi, Jang-Won Lee, Qijin Xu, Laura Perin and John S Yu
Promising results of pancreatic islet transplantation to treat type 1 diabetes mellitus, combined with severe shortage of donor pancreata, have spurred efforts to generate pancreatic islet-like cells and insulin-producing β-cells from various progenitor populations. In this study, we show for the first time that multipotent nestin-positive stem cells selected from rat bone marrow can be differentiated into pancreatic ductal and insulin-producing β-cells in vitro. We report an effective multistep protocol in a serum-free system, which could efficiently induce β-cell differentiation from multipotent nestin-positive bone marrow stem cells. To enhance the induction and differentiation toward pancreatic lineage we used trichostatin A, an important regulator of chromatin remodeling, and 5-aza 2′ deoxycytidine, an inhibitor of DNA methylase. All-trans retinoic acid was then utilized to promote pancreatic differentiation. We sequentially induced important transcription factor genes, such as Pdx1, Ngn3, and Pax6, following the in vivo development timeline of the pancreas in rats. Furthermore, in the final stage with the presence of nicotinamide, the induced cells expressed islet and ductal specific markers. The differentiated cells not only expressed insulin and glucose transporter 2, but also displayed a glucose-responsive secretion of the hormone. Our results delineate a new model system to study islet neogenesis and possible pharmaceutical targets. Nestin-positive bone marrow stem cells may be therapeutically relevant for β-cell replacement in type 1 diabetes.
A Amrani, M Jafarian-Tehrani, P Mormède, S Durant, J-M Pleau, F Haour, M Dardenne and F Homo-Delarche
Cytokines, particularly interleukin 1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor, are known to induce hypoglycemia in normal rodents or different experimental models of type II diabetes. We investigated, at the pre-diabetic stage, the effect of short-term administration of murine recombinant interleukin-1α (mrIL-1α) on the levels of glucose, insulin and corticosterone in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse, a spontaneous model of type I diabetes. Two-month-old, pre-diabetic NOD mice of both sexes were insensitive to mrIL-1α (12·5 and 50 μg/kg) 2 h after administration, the time at which the maximal decrease (around 50%) was observed in the C57BL/6 mouse strain. Kinetic studies however showed that mrIL-1α lowered glycemia in both sexes of NOD mice, but the effect was limited and delayed. In the NOD and C57BL/6 strains, mrIL-1α had no influence on insulin levels in females, but significantly increased them in males (P<0·0001). Castration of NOD males abrogated the stimulatory effect of mrIL-1α on insulin secretion. Corticosterone secretion was stimulated by mrIL-1α in both sexes of NOD and C57BL/6 mice, and this effect was faster and greater in NOD females than in C57BL/6 females. The incomplete hypoglycemic response to mrIL-1α in females may be attributed to the anti-insulin effect of glucocorticoids, an effect which can be demonstrated when mrIL-1α is administered to adrenalectomized animals or when mrIL-1α is administered together with the glucocorticoid antagonist RU38486. In NOD males, in contrast, glucocorticoids did not play a major role in the limited hypoglycemic response to mrIL-1α, since RU38486 and adrenalectomy were not able to unmask a hypoglycemic effect. Moreover, NOD mice of both sexes were less sensitive than C57BL/6 mice to the hypoglycemic effect of insulin (2·5 U/kg), which suggests some degree of insulin-resistance in NOD mice. With regard to the effect of IL-1 on NOD mouse glycemia, therefore, these results suggest that glucocorticoids and/or androgens, according to the animal's sex, may induce a state of insulin-resistance.
Journal of Endocrinology (1996) 148, 139–148
Galya Vassileva, Weiwen Hu, Lizbeth Hoos, Glen Tetzloff, Shijun Yang, Li Liu, Ling Kang, Harry R Davis, Joseph A Hedrick, Hong Lan, Timothy Kowalski and Eric L Gustafson
G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 (GPBAR1/TGR5/M-Bar/GPR131) is a cell surface receptor involved in the regulation of bile acid metabolism. We have previously shown that Gpbar1-null mice are resistant to cholesterol gallstone disease when fed a lithogenic diet. Other published studies have suggested that Gpbar1 is involved in both energy homeostasis and glucose homeostasis. Here, we examine the functional role of Gpbar1 in diet-induced obese mice. We found that body weight, food intake, and fasted blood glucose levels were similar between Gpbar1-null mice and their wild-type (WT) littermates when fed a chow or high-fat diet (HFD) for 2 months. However, insulin tolerance tests revealed improved insulin sensitivity in male Gpbar1 −/− mice fed chow, but impaired insulin sensitivity when fed a HFD. In contrast, female Gpbar1 −/− mice exhibited improved insulin sensitivity when fed a HFD compared with their WT littermates. Female Gpbar1 −/− mice had significantly lower plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels than their WT littermates on both diets. Male Gpbar1 −/− mice on HFD displayed increased hepatic steatosis when compared with Gpbar1 + / + males and Gpbar1 −/− females on HFD. These results suggest a gender-dependent regulation of Gpbar1 function in metabolic disease.
RN Kulkarni, ZL Wang, RM Wang, DM Smith, MA Ghatei and SR Bloom
We have studied the effects of first and second generation sulphonylureas on the release of insulin and neuropeptide tyrosine (NPY) from hamster insulinoma tumour (HIT T15) cells and isolated rat islets. In the presence of 5.5 mmol/l glucose all sulphonylureas stimulated insulin release from the HIT cells (P<0.01 ANOVA, n> or =4) but only glibenclamide (GLIB, 10 micromol/l) stimulated the release of NPY (mean+/-s.e.m. control 11.1+/-1.3 vs GLIB 28.4+/-4.1 fmol/h per 10(6) cells, P<0001, n=16). In isolated perifused rat islets both glibenclamide (10 micromol/l) (control 3.5+/-0.3 vs GLIB 6. 3+/-0.2 fmol/min per islet, P<0.01, n=6) and tolbutamide (50 micromol/l) (control 4.7+/-0.1 vs TOLB 6.7+/-0.3 fmol/min per islet, P<0.01, n=6) enhanced glucose (8 mmol/l)-stimulated insulin release. However, only glibenclamide stimulated the release of NPY from the islets (control 3.4+/-0.8 vs GLIB 24.5+/-5 attomol/min per islet, P<0.01, n=6). Similar results were obtained in islets isolated from dexamethasonetreated rats. Glibenclamide treatment of HIT cells showed a prompt insulin release (10 min) while NPY secretion was slower (60 min), suggesting that internalization of the sulphonylurea is required to stimulate NPY release. Glibenclamide, the most common oral therapeutic agent in type 2 diabetes mellitus, is associated with release of the autocrine insulin secretion inhibitor, NPY.
L A Salamonsen, R J Young, S Garcia and J K Findlay
Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is present in ovine endometrium, primarily in epithelial cells, and increases around the time of implantation. We examined the cell type expressing ET-binding sites in vitro and whether ET-1 has mitogenic actions in the endometrium, alone or in synergy with other growth factors. Purified epithelial and stromal cells were prepared from luteal-phase endometrium. Specific receptors were demonstrated by binding of 125I-ET-1 and proliferative effects of ET-1 and/or other growth factors determined by uptake of [3H]thymidine by cells in serum-free culture. 125I-ET-1 bound to both epithelial (2516 ± 820 c.p.m./well) and stromal (6368 ± 1350 c.p.m./well) cells and was displaced by ET-1 (1 μmol l−1). There were no proliferative effects of ET on epithelial cells. ET-1 (10 nmol l−1) stimulated uptake of [3H]thymidine by stromal cells under serum-free conditions in 13/20 individual cell preparations, to 149 ± 13% of control (untreated=100%) with dose-dependence between the range of 1 to 100 nmol l−1. Stimulation by fetal calf serum was to 377 ± 126% of control. The effects on proliferation by other growth factors (dose; % of control ± s.e.m., number of positives/total number of cell preparations) were: IGF-I (13 nmol l−1; 182 ± 14, 4/4), epidermal growth factor (EGF; 4·8 nmol l−1; 132 ± 5%, 7/7), platelet-derived growth factor-BB (0·4 nmol l−1; 146 ± 3, 2/2) and leukaemia inhibitory factor (0·4 nmol l−1; 110 ± 2, 3/3). All stimulations except that of EGF were significant and dose-responsive but only insulin was additive with ET (350 ± 35, 5/5). ET-1 also stimulated expression of the the AP-1 cis element c-jun, this being maximal at 60 min of exposure to mitogen. ET-1, along with other growth factors has a likely paracrine role in cellular proliferation in the endometrium, possibly in association with blastocyst implantation.
Journal of Endocrinology (1997) 152, 283–290
William H T Smith, R Unnikrishnan Nair, Dawn Adamson, Mark T Kearney, Stephen G Ball and Anthony J Balmforth
In acromegaly, somatostatin receptor ligands (SRLs) can ameliorate left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and their use is associated with demonstrable improvements in various parameters of cardiac function. It remains unclear as to whether these beneficial effects are principally attributable to falling GH and IGF-I levels, or whether SRLs exert independent direct effects on the heart via somatostatin receptors. To help address this issue, we have sought to investigate somatostatin receptor expression in human heart. A human heart cDNA library was probed using PCR techniques to determine expression of somatostatin receptor subtypes. Subsequently, human heart biopsies and human cardiac fibroblasts and myocytes were analysed to determine whether expression differed between cardiac chambers or cell types. mRNAs for four of the five somatostatin receptor subtypes (sst1, sst2, sst4 and sst5) were shown to be co-expressed by the human heart. These receptors were present in both atrial and ventricular tissue. Human cardiac myocytes expressed mRNA for only sst1 and sst2, while human cardiac fibroblasts expressed all four subtypes found in whole heart tissue. The expression of functional somatostatin receptors on human cardiac fibroblasts was confirmed by mobilisation of intracellular calcium in response to somatostatin. The presence of cardiac somatostatin receptors raises the possibility of a direct effect of somatostatin analogues on the heart. Furthermore, the differential expression of somatostatin receptor subtypes by human cardiac myocytes and fibroblasts opens up the possibility of differential modulation of the cell types in the heart by subtype-specific somatostatin analogues.
J Kwakkel, H C van Beeren, M T Ackermans, M C Platvoet-ter Schiphorst, E Fliers, W M Wiersinga and A Boelen
We have previously shown that skeletal muscle deiodinase type 2 (D2) mRNA (listed as Dio2 in MGI Database) is upregulated in an animal model of acute illness. However, human studies on the expression of muscle D2 during illness report conflicting data. Therefore, we evaluated the expression of skeletal muscle D2 and D2-regulating factors in two mouse models of illness that differ in timing and severity of illness: 1) turpentine-induced inflammation, and 2) Streptococcus pneumoniae infection. During turpentine-induced inflammation, D2 mRNA and activity increased compared to pair-fed controls, most prominently at day 1 and 2, whereas after S. pneumoniae infection D2 mRNA decreased. We evaluated the association of D2 expression with serum thyroid hormones, (de-)ubiquitinating enzymes ubiquitin-specific peptidase 33 and WD repeat and SOCS box-containing 1 (Wsb1), cytokine expression and activation of inflammatory pathways and cAMP pathway. During chronic inflammation the increased muscle D2 expression is associated with the activation of the cAMP pathway. The normalization of D2 5 days after turpentine injection coincides with increased Wsb1 and tumor necrosis factor α expression. Muscle interleukin-1β (Il1b) expression correlated with decreased D2 mRNA expression after S. pneumoniae infection. In conclusion, muscle D2 expression is differentially regulated during illness, probably related to differences in the inflammatory response and type of pathology. D2 mRNA and activity increases in skeletal muscle during the acute phase of chronic inflammation compared to pair-fed controls probably due to activation of the cAMP pathway. In contrast, muscle D2 mRNA decreases 48 h after a severe bacterial infection, which is associated with local Il1b mRNA expression and might also be due to diminished food-intake.
F Sentinelli, E Filippi, M G Cavallo, S Romeo, M Fanelli and M G Baroni
The insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) plays a central role in insulin sensitivity, and association studies have shown that the IRS-1 G972R variant is a risk factor for insulin resistance. However, how this mutation may lead to impaired insulin sensitivity is still to be determined. Our study aimed to evaluate, after transfection of the IRS-1 G972R variant in 3T3L1 adipocytes, the effect of this mutation on insulin signaling and on cell differentiation. The 3T3L1 cells were transfected with pcDNA3 expression vector containing either the human wild-type IRS-1 or the G972R variant. After induction of differentiation, the 3T3L1 transfected with wild-type IRS-1 differentiated in 6–8 days, while the cells transfected with G972R variant did not differentiate. To determine whether the defect in IRS-1 was responsible for this, we analyzed the expression of several genes involved in the insulin signaling pathway. Results showed that PPARγ expression was significantly reduced in cells transfected with the mutated IRS-1, together with a significant decrease in binding of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI 3-kinase) to IRS-1 G972R and in PI 3-kinase activity. In addition, we observed that the interaction between the insulin receptor (IR) and the IRS-1 G972R protein was increased and that the autophosphorylation of the IR was significantly inhibited in 3T3L1-G972R cells compared with 3T3L1-WT. Treatment of the 3T3L1-G972R cells with pioglitazone (PIO), a PPARγ agonist, restored differentiation with higher level of PPARγ expression and restoration of PI 3-kinase binding to IRS-1 G972R and PI 3-kinase activity. IR autophosphorylation was also increased. Withdrawal of PIO in fully differentiated 3T3L1-G972R cells determined the reappearance of the insulin signaling defect. Finally, we observed higher levels of IRS-2 expression, suggesting that IRS-2 may play a more important role in adipocyte insulin signaling. In conclusion, IRS-1 G972R variant impairs insulin signaling, and treatment with PPARγ agonist restores the normal phenotype of 3T3L1 cells.
AI Sotelo, A Bartke, JJ Kopchick, Knapp JR and D Turyn
We have examined the regulation of hepatic growth hormone receptors (GH-R) and serum GH binding proteins (GHBP) in transgenic mice expressing an antagonist of bovine growth hormone (bGH), G119K-bGH, and consequently exhibiting a growth suppressed dwarf phenotype. Specific GHBP could be measured in transgenic dwarf mouse serum only by immunological methods (RIA), because these mice have a very high concentration of mutated bGH in circulation (> 1 microgram/ml) and, therefore, almost all GHBP is bound to G119K-bGH and cannot be quantitated in binding assays. The concentrations of GHBP were 0.6 +/- 0.4 nM and 1.7 +/- 0.4 nM for normal and dwarf mice respectively. The concentrations of free GHBP in normal mice and in transgenic mice expressing wild-type GH can be calculated using chromatographic techniques as the dissociation constant (Kd) and the ratio of bound 125I-GH to free 125I-GH in the serum ([GHBP]free = B/F.Kd). In agreement with the assumption that GHBP reflects GH-R status, liver uptake of injected labeled bGH was greatly reduced in transgenic dwarfs in comparison with normal mice or with transgenic mice expressing wild-type bGH (liver/blood ratio of 0.48 +/- 0.21, 2.7 +/- 0.2, and 1.3 +/- 0.3 respectively) indicating that the high concentration of the mutated bGH (G119K-bGH) prevents labeled bGH uptake, as was expected from the dwarf phenotype. 125I-bGH taken up by the liver of transgenic dwarf mice was found in a smaller molecular species than in normal mice, compatible with the presence of 1:1 [(GH-R):GH] complexes instead of the 2:1 [(GH-R)2:GH] or 2:2 [(GHBP)2:(GH)2] complexes found in normal mice. The concentration of IGF-I, the principal mediator of GH activity, in the G119K-bGH transgenic mice was correlated with the concentration of free GHBP. This allowed us to use free GHBP concentration as a marker of the effects of the active endogenous hormone (mGH) on liver receptors in the presence of different concentrations of the antagonist of GH. The levels of GHBP in serum, as well as the concentration of GH-R in liver microsomes from mice expressing the bGH antagonist, are up-regulated by the high concentration of G119K-bGH (85%), but significantly less so than that which could be expected for the same concentration of native GH (220-275%). This up-regulation suggests that the G119K-bGH antagonist is internalized and induces synthesis of the receptor and of the binding protein.