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Chun Zeng, Xin Yi, Danny Zipris, Hongli Liu, Lin Zhang, Qiaoyun Zheng, Krishnamurthy Malathi, Ge Jin and Aimin Zhou

The cause of type 1 diabetes continues to be a focus of investigation. Studies have revealed that interferon α (IFNα) in pancreatic islets after viral infection or treatment with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), a mimic of viral infection, is associated with the onset of type 1 diabetes. However, how IFNα contributes to the onset of type 1 diabetes is obscure. In this study, we found that 2-5A-dependent RNase L (RNase L), an IFNα-inducible enzyme that functions in the antiviral and antiproliferative activities of IFN, played an important role in dsRNA-induced onset of type 1 diabetes. Using RNase L-deficient, rat insulin promoter-B7.1 transgenic mice, which are more vulnerable to harmful environmental factors such as viral infection, we demonstrated that deficiency of RNase L in mice resulted in a significant delay of diabetes onset induced by polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C), a type of synthetic dsRNA, and streptozotocin, a drug which can artificially induce type 1-like diabetes in experimental animals. Immunohistochemical staining results indicated that the population of infiltrated CD8+T cells was remarkably reduced in the islets of RNase L-deficient mice, indicating that RNase L may contribute to type 1 diabetes onset through regulating immune responses. Furthermore, RNase L was responsible for the expression of certain proinflammatory genes in the pancreas under induced conditions. Our findings provide new insights into the molecular mechanism underlying β-cell destruction and may indicate novel therapeutic strategies for treatment and prevention of the disease based on the selective regulation and inhibition of RNase L.

Free access

Weiwei Xu, Jamie Morford and Franck Mauvais-Jarvis

One of the most sexually dimorphic aspects of metabolic regulation is the bidirectional modulation of glucose homeostasis by testosterone in male and females. Severe testosterone deficiency predisposes men to type 2 diabetes (T2D), while in contrast, androgen excess predisposes women to hyperglycemia. The role of androgen deficiency and excess in promoting visceral obesity and insulin resistance in men and women respectively is well established. However, although it is established that hyperglycemia requires β cell dysfunction to develop, the role of testosterone in β cell function is less understood. This review discusses recent evidence that the androgen receptor (AR) is present in male and female β cells. In males, testosterone action on AR in β cells enhances glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by potentiating the insulinotropic action of glucagon-like peptide-1. In females, excess testosterone action via AR in β cells promotes insulin hypersecretion leading to oxidative injury, which in turn predisposes to T2D.

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L van Bloemendaal, J S ten Kulve, S E la Fleur, R G Ijzerman and M Diamant

The delivery of nutrients to the gastrointestinal tract after food ingestion activates the secretion of several gut-derived mediators, including the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA), such as exenatide and liraglutide, are currently employed successfully in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. GLP-1RA improve glycaemic control and stimulate satiety, leading to reductions in food intake and body weight. Besides gastric distension and peripheral vagal nerve activation, GLP-1RA induce satiety by influencing brain regions involved in the regulation of feeding, and several routes of action have been proposed. This review summarises the evidence for a physiological role of GLP-1 in the central regulation of feeding behaviour and the different routes of action involved. Also, we provide an overview of presently available data on pharmacological stimulation of GLP-1 pathways leading to alterations in CNS activity, reductions in food intake and weight loss.

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Alison J Forhead, Juanita K Jellyman, Katherine Gillham, Janelle W Ward, Dominique Blache and Abigail L Fowden

The actions of angiotensin II on type 1 (AT1) and type 2 (AT2) receptor subtypes are important for normal kidney development before birth. This study investigated the effect of AT1 receptor antagonism on renal growth and growth regulators in fetal sheep during late gestation. From 125 days of gestation (term 145±2 days), chronically catheterised sheep fetuses were infused intravenously for 5 days with either an AT1-specific receptor antagonist (GR138950, 2–4 mg/kg per day, n=5) or saline (0.9% NaCl, n=5). Blockade of the AT1 receptor decreased arterial blood oxygenation and pH and increased blood pCO2, haemoglobin and lactate, and plasma cortisol and IGF-II. Blood glucose and plasma thyroid hormones and IGF-I were unchanged between the treatment groups. On the 5th day of infusion, the kidneys of the GR-treated fetuses were lighter than those of the control fetuses, both in absolute and relative terms, and were smaller in transverse cross-sectional width and cortical thickness. In the GR-infused fetuses, renal AT2 receptor protein concentration and glomerular density were significantly greater than in the saline-infused fetuses. Blockade of the AT1 receptor had no effect on relative cortical thickness, fractional or mean glomerular volumes, or renal protein levels of the AT1 receptor, IGF type 1 receptor, insulin receptor or protein kinase C ζ. Therefore, in the ovine fetus, AT1 receptor antagonism causes increased renal protein expression of the AT2 receptor subtype, which, combined with inhibition of AT1 receptor activity, may be partly responsible for growth retardation of the developing kidney.

Free access

ME Guibbolini, PM Pierson and B Lahlou

Neurohypophysial hormone receptors and second messengers were studied in trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes. Arginine vasotocin (AVT) and isotocin (IT) elicited a concentration-dependent inhibition of cAMP accumulation in the presence of 5x10(-8) M glucagon (maximal effect for 4.5x10(-7) M and 1.4x10(-7) M, half-maximal effect for 2.1x10(-8) M and 0.7x10(-8) M, AVT and IT respectively). The effect of glucagon was inhibited up to 90% by AVT and 80% by IT. While AVT inhibited (up to 50%) the basal cAMP production, IT had no such action. Specific V(1) or V(2) analogues (with reference to vasopressin in mammals) were used for pharmacological characterization of the type of neurohypophysial hormone receptor involved in this inhibition. The V(1) agonist [Phe(2), Orn(8)]-oxytocin inhibited the glucagon-stimulated cAMP production with a maximal effect for 6x10(-7) M and a half-maximal effect for 0.9x10(-8) M concentrations of the analogue. While the V(1) agonist reduced the glucagon-stimulated cAMP level by 70%, it showed only a tendency to reduce the basal level. The V(2) agonist [deamino(1), Val(4),d -Arg(8)]-vasopressin had no effect either on basal or on glucagon-stimulated cAMP production. The V(1) antagonist [d(CH(2))(5)(1), O-Me-Tyr(2), Arg(8)]-vasopressin totally reversed the 10(-8) M AVT-induced inhibition of 5x10(-8) M glucagon-stimulated cAMP production, whereas the V(2) antagonist [d(CH(2))(5)(1),d -Ile(2), Ile(4), Arg(8), Ala(9)]-vasopressin had no such effect. In this particular case, maximal and half-maximal effects of the V(1) antagonist were obtained for 2.3x10(-6) M and 1. 2x10(-6 )M respectively. Changes in intracellular calcium content were measured using the fluorescent probe FURA-2/AM. AVT and IT elicited a concentration-dependent increase in Ca(2+) accumulation. The comparison of the effect of 10(-8) M agonists versus AVT showed the following order of potency: AVT=IT>V(1) agonist>V(2) agonist. The V(1) antagonist reversed the AVT-induced Ca(2+) accumulation whereas the V(2) antagonist had no such effect. These results are taken as evidence for the presence in trout hepatocytes of neurohypophysial hormone receptors functionally close to the V(1a)-type linked to cAMP production and Ca(2+) mobilization.

Free access

JA Shaw, MI Delday, AW Hart, HM Docherty, CA Maltin and K Docherty

The objective of these studies was to evaluate human insulin gene expression following intramuscular plasmid injection in non-diabetic rats as a potential approach to gene therapy for diabetes mellitus avoiding the need for immunosuppression. A wild-type human preproinsulin construct and a mutant construct in which PC2/PC3 sites were engineered to form furin consensus sites were evaluated in in vitro transfections of hepatocyte (HepG2) and myoblast (C2C12/L6) cell lines, primary rat myoblasts, and dermal fibroblasts. In vivo gene transfer by percutaneous plasmid injection of soleus muscle +/- prior notexin-induced myolysis was assessed in rats. In vitro transfection of non-neuroendocrine cell lines and primary cultures with wild-type human preproinsulin resulted in secretion of predominantly unprocessed proinsulin. Employing the mutant construct, there was significant processing to mature insulin (HepG2, 95%; C2C12, 75%; L6, 65%; primary myoblasts, 48%; neonatal fibroblasts, 56%; adult fibroblasts, 87%). In rats aged 5 weeks, circulating human (pro)insulin was detected from 1 to 37 days following plasmid injection and the potential of augmenting transfection efficiency by prior notexin injection was demonstrated (wild-type processing, 87%; mutant, 90%). Relative hypoglycaemia was confirmed by HbA1C (saline, 5.5%; wild type, 5.1%; mutant, 5.1% (P<0.05)). Human (pro)insulin levels and processing (wild-type, 8%; mutant, 53%) were lower in rats aged 9 months but relative hypoglycaemia was confirmed by serum glucose at 10 days (saline, 6.4 mmol/l; wild-type, 6.0 mmol/l; mutant, 5.4 mmol/l). In conclusion, prolonged constitutive systemic secretion of bioactive human (pro)insulin has been attained in non-neuroendocrine cells in vitro and in growing and mature rats following intramuscular plasmid injection.

Free access

EG Siegel, A Seidenstucker, B Gallwitz, F Schmitz, A Reinecke-Luthge, G Kloppel, UR Folsch and WE Schmidt

Liver cirrhosis is often accompanied by a disturbed carbohydrate metabolism similar to type 2 diabetes. To investigate the severity of the defect in insulin secretion in this form of diabetes, we measured insulin release from isolated pancreatic islets of rats with CCl(4)-phenobarbital-induced liver cirrhosis. Cirrhosis was confirmed by clinical signs, elevated liver enzymes and histology. Fasting venous plasma glucose concentrations were equal in rats with liver cirrhosis and in controls. Plasma insulin and glucagon concentrations were significantly greater (P<0.01) in cirrhotic rats than in control animals. Glucose (16.7 mM)-induced stimulation of insulin release from pancreatic islets revealed a twofold increase in control and cirrhotic rats. Basal and stimulated insulin secretion, however, were significantly lower in cirrhotic animals. The incretin hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), has therapeutic potential for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Therefore, islets from control and cirrhotic animals were incubated with GLP-1 in concentrations from 10(-)(11) to 10(-)(6) M. GLP-1 stimulated insulin release in a concentration-dependent manner. In islets from cirrhotic rats, basal and stimulated insulin secretion was blunted compared with controls. These data show that the hyperinsulinemia observed in liver cirrhosis is not due to an increase of insulin secretion from islets, but could be explained by decreased hepatic clearance of insulin. GLP-1 may ameliorate diabetes in patients with liver cirrhosis.

Free access

Joshua A Kulas, Kendra L Puig and Colin K Combs

The amyloid precursor protein (APP) has been extensively investigated for its role in the production of amyloid beta (Aβ), a plaque-forming peptide in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Epidemiological evidence suggests type 2 diabetes is a risk factor for AD. The pancreas is an essential regulator of blood glucose levels through the secretion of the hormones insulin and glucagon. Pancreatic dysfunction is a well-characterized consequence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. In this study, we have examined the expression and processing of pancreatic APP to test the hypothesis that APP may play a role in pancreatic function and the pathophysiology of diabetes. Our data demonstrate the presence of APP within the pancreas, including pancreatic islets in both mouse and human samples. Additionally, we report that the APP/PS1 mouse model of AD overexpresses APP within pancreatic islets, although this did not result in detectable levels of Aβ. We compared whole pancreas and islet culture lysates by Western blot from C57BL/6 (WT), APP−/− and APP/PS1 mice and observed APP-dependent differences in the total protein levels of GLUT4, IDE and BACE2. Immunohistochemistry for BACE2 detected high levels in pancreatic α cells. Additionally, both mouse and human islets processed APP to release sAPP into cell culture media. Moreover, sAPP stimulated insulin but not glucagon secretion from islet cultures. We conclude that APP and its metabolites are capable of influencing the basic physiology of the pancreas, possibly through the release of sAPP acting in an autocrine or paracrine manner.

Free access

Maaike M Roefs, Françoise Carlotti, Katherine Jones, Hannah Wills, Alexander Hamilton, Michael Verschoor, Joanna M Williams Durkin, Laura Garcia-Perez, Melissa F Brereton, Laura McCulloch, Marten A Engelse, Paul R V Johnson, Barbara C Hansen, Kevin Docherty, Eelco J P de Koning and Anne Clark

Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is associated with pancreatic islet dysfunction. Loss of β-cell identity has been implicated via dedifferentiation or conversion to other pancreatic endocrine cell types. How these transitions contribute to the onset and progression of T2DM in vivo is unknown. The aims of this study were to determine the degree of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition occurring in α and β cells in vivo and to relate this to diabetes-associated (patho)physiological conditions. The proportion of islet cells expressing the mesenchymal marker vimentin was determined by immunohistochemistry and quantitative morphometry in specimens of pancreas from human donors with T2DM (n = 28) and without diabetes (ND, n = 38) and in non-human primates at different stages of the diabetic syndrome: normoglycaemic (ND, n = 4), obese, hyperinsulinaemic (HI, n = 4) and hyperglycaemic (DM, n = 8). Vimentin co-localised more frequently with glucagon (α-cells) than with insulin (β-cells) in the human ND group (1.43% total α-cells, 0.98% total β-cells, median; P < 0.05); these proportions were higher in T2DM than ND (median 4.53% α-, 2.53% β-cells; P < 0.05). Vimentin-positive β-cells were not apoptotic, had reduced expression of Nkx6.1 and Pdx1, and were not associated with islet amyloidosis or with bihormonal expression (insulin + glucagon). In non-human primates, vimentin-positive β-cell proportion was larger in the diabetic than the ND group (6.85 vs 0.50%, medians respectively, P < 0.05), but was similar in ND and HI groups. In conclusion, islet cell expression of vimentin indicates a degree of plasticity and dedifferentiation with potential loss of cellular identity in diabetes. This could contribute to α- and β-cell dysfunction in T2DM.

Free access

GE Rice, MH Wong, W Farrugia and KF Scott

Although phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzymatic activities have been implicated in the regulation of phospholipid metabolism and eicosanoid formation in human gestational tissues, the role and contribution made by individual PLA2 isozymes has not been established. The aim of this study, therefore, was to determine the contribution made by Type II PLA2 to PLA2 enzymatic activity present in human term placenta. The experimental paradigm used to establish the contribution made by Type II PLA2 to total in vitro PLA2 enzymatic activity present in placental extracts was to remove Type II PLA2 by immunoaffinity extraction and then to quantify residual PLA2 enzymatic activity. Before immunoaffinity extraction, Type II PLA2 immunoactivity and total PLA2 enzymatic activity present in placental extracts averaged 28.0 +/- 10.0 ng/mg protein and 1040 +/- 367 pmol/h per mg protein (n = 3) respectively. After solid-phase immunoaffinity batch extraction of placental extracts, immunoreactive Type II PLA2 was not detectable by ELISA, and PLA2 enzymatic activity was decreased by 82 +/- 1% (P < 0.001). Residual (i.e. non-Type II) PLA2 enzymatic activity was further characterised by Western blot analysis and enzyme activity assay. The data obtained are consistent with a contribution by both cytosolic PLA2 and other secretory PLA2 isozymes (i.e. non-Type II) to residual PLA2 enzymatic activity. The results obtained in this study support the conclusion that Type II PLA2 is quantitatively the primary PLA2 isozyme that contributes to in vitro PLA2 enzymatic activity present in extracts of human term placenta, accounting for at least 80% of total activity. These data further support the involvement of this extracellularly active isozyme in the regulation of placental phospholipid metabolism and eicosanoid formation during late gestation.