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E Zoidis, C Ghirlanda-Keller, M Gosteli-Peter, J Zapf and C Schmid

In osteoblasts only the type III Na(+)-dependent phosphate (NaPi) transporter isoforms Pit-1 and Pit-2 have been identified. We tested the effects of extracellular Pi, Ca(2+) and IGF-I on Na(d)Pi transport and Pit-1 or Pit-2 mRNA expression in rat osteoblastic (PyMS) cells. The v(max) of Na(d)Pi transport was higher in cells kept in Pi-free, serum-free medium for 24 h than in controls at 1 mM Pi (2.47+/-0.20 vs 1.83+/-0.17 nmol/mg protein x 10 min). The apparent affinity constant (K(M)) for Pi remained unchanged. Pi withdrawal for 24 h did not impair cell viability whereas increasing the extracellular Pi to 5 mM resulted in cell death. Pit-1 (but not Pit-2) mRNA was upregulated following Pi deprivation, Ca(2+) treatment or after treatment with 1 nM IGF-I, known to stimulate Na(d)Pi transport and cell proliferation. IGF-I also stimulated Na(d)Pi transport and Pit-1 mRNA in primary rat calvarial osteoblasts. Expression of Pit-1 mRNA in vivo and the coordinate regulation of Pit-1 mRNA and Pi transport in osteoblastic cells suggest that Pit-1 is a candidate transporter of physiological relevance in bone.

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M G Cavallo, F Dotta, L Monetini, S Dionisi, M Previti, L Valente, A Toto, U Di Mario and P Pozzilli

Abstract

In the present study we have evaluated the expression of different beta-cell markers, islet molecules and autoantigens relevant in diabetes autoimmunity by a human insulinoma cell line (CM) in order to define its similarities with native beta cells and to discover whether it could be considered as a model for studies on immunological aspects of Type 1 diabetes.

First, the positivity of the CM cell line for known markers of neuroendocrine derivation was determined by means of immunocytochemical analysis using different anti-islet monoclonal antibodies including A2B5 and 3G5 reacting with islet gangliosides, and HISL19 binding to an islet glycoprotein. Secondly, the expression and characteristics of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and of GM2-1 ganglioside, both known to be islet autoantigens in diabetes autoimmunity and expressed by human native beta cells, were investigated in the CM cell line. The pattern of ganglioside expression in comparison to that of native beta cells was also evaluated. Thirdly, the binding of diabetic sera to CM cells reacting with islet cytoplasmic antigens (ICA) was studied by immunohistochemistry. The results of this study showed that beta cell markers identified by anti-islet monoclonal antibodies A2B5, 3G5 and HISL-19 are expressed by CM cells; similarly, islet molecules such as GAD and GM2-1 ganglioside are present and possess similar characteristics to those found in native beta cells; the pattern of expression of other gangliosides by CM cells is also identical to human pancreatic islets; beta cell autoantigen(s) reacting with antibodies present in islet cell antibodies (ICA) positive diabetic sera identified by ICA binding are also detectable in this insulinoma cell line.

We conclude that CM cells show close similarities to native beta cells with respect to the expression of neuroendocrine markers, relevant beta cell autoantigens in Type 1 diabetes (GAD, GM2-1, ICA antigen), and other gangliosides. Therefore, this insulinoma cell line may be considered as an ideal model for studies aimed at investigating autoimmune phenomena occurring in Type 1 diabetes.

Journal of Endocrinology (1996) 150, 113–120

Free access

DR Brigstock

The CCN family comprises cysteine-rich 61 (CYR61/CCN1), connective tIssue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2), nephroblastoma overexpressed (NOV/CCN3), and Wnt-induced secreted proteins-1 (WISP-1/CCN4), -2 (WISP-2/CCN5) and -3 (WISP-3/CCN6). These proteins stimulate mitosis, adhesion, apoptosis, extracellular matrix production, growth arrest and migration of multiple cell types. Many of these activities probably occur through the ability of CCN proteins to bind and activate cell surface integrins. Accumulating evidence supports a role for these factors in endocrine pathways and endocrine-related processes. To illustrate the broad role played by the CCN family in basic and clinical endocrinology, this Article highlights the relationship between CCN proteins and hormone action, skeletal growth, placental angiogenesis, IGF-binding proteins and diabetes-induced fibrosis.

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M. Tepel, S. Bauer, S. Husseini, A. Raffelsiefer and W. Zidek

ABSTRACT

Cytosolic free sodium concentrations ([Na+]i) in intact platelets from 32 type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients and from 27 age- and sex-matched non-diabetic control subjects were measured with the novel sodium-sensitive fluorescent dye sodium-binding-benzofuran-isophthalate. [Na+]i was significantly higher in platelets from type 2 diabetic patients compared with control subjects (40·6 ± 2·4 vs 32·0 ± 2·0 mmol/l, means ± s.e.m., P<0·03). Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly elevated in diabetic patients compared with control subjects. Analysis of diabetic patients showed a significant association between [Na+]i and diastolic blood pressure (P =0·026). Stimulation of Na/H exchange by thrombin increased [Na+]i in both groups. After inhibition of Na/K/ATPase by ouabain (1 mmol/l), [Na+]i was significantly increased both in diabetic patients and non-diabetic subjects in a similar way (by 40·2 ± 7·3 and 31·7 ± 5·3 mmol/l respectively). It is concluded that increased [Na+]i in cells from type 2 diabetic patients may be related to hypertension.

Journal of Endocrinology (1993) 138, 565–572

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J. M. H. M. Reul, F. R. van den Bosch and E. R. de Kloet

ABSTRACT

The rat brain contains two receptor systems for corticosterone: the type-I corticosterone-preferring receptor and the classical type-II glucocorticoid receptor. The two receptor populations can be distinguished in binding studies with the 'pure' synthetic glucocorticoid 11β,17β-dihydroxy-6-methyl-17α (1-propynyl)-androsta-1,4,6-trione-3-one (RU 28362). In-vitro autoradiography and quantitative image analysis showed that the type-I receptor was localized almost exclusively in the hippocampus, whereas the type-II receptor extended throughout the brain, with the highest levels in the nucleus paraventricularis, nucleus supraopticus and in the thalamic, amygdaloid, hippocampal and septal regions. Unoccupied type-I and type-II receptor sites, as measured in vitro by cytosol binding of 3H-labelled steroids, displayed a large difference in the rate of appearance after adrenalectomy. The availability of type-I receptors exhibited a marked increase, reaching maximal levels within 4–7 h, and then remained constant until 2 weeks after adrenalectomy. The availability of type-II receptors did not change considerably during the first 24 h after adrenalectomy, but displayed a large increase in capacity during the subsequent 2 weeks. After adrenocortical activation as a consequence of exposure to a novel environment, plasma concentrations of corticosterone increased to reach a peak of 811 nmol/l after 30 min and attained the basal concentration (43 nmol/l) after 240 min. During this time, occupation of type-I receptors increased from 77·8% at 0 min to 97% at 30–60 min and then declined to 84·8% after 240 min. Occupation of the type-II receptors was 28·1% at 0 min, 74·5% after 30 min and 32·8% after 240 min. Injection of dexamethasone (25 μg/100 g body wt) at 08.00 h resulted in suppression of basal plasma concentrations of corticosterone and prevented the circadian-driven rise in circulating corticosterone. Occupation of type-I receptors did not change considerably as a result of injection of dexamethasone, but occupation of type-II receptors was markedly increased till 16.00 h compared with that after injection of vehicle.

It was concluded that the type-I and type-II receptors are not only localized differently in the rat brain, but also exhibit a striking difference in occupation after manipulation of the pituitary-adrenocortical system. The data further support the concept of a type-I receptor-mediated tonic activating influence and a type-II receptor-mediated feedback action of corticosterone on brain function.

J. Endocr. (1987) 115, 459–467

Free access

RH McCusker and J Novakofski

Zinc (Zn(2+)), a multifunctional micronutrient, was recently shown to lower the affinity of cell-associated insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein (IGFBP)-3 and IGFBP-5 for both IGF-I and IGF-II, but to increase the affinity of the cell surface type 1 IGF receptor (IGF-1R) for the same two ligands. However, there is a need for data concerning the effects of Zn(2+) on soluble IGFBPs and the type 2 IGF receptor (IGF-2R). In the current work, we demonstrate that Zn(2+) affects the affinity of IGFBP-5 secreted by myoblasts but not IGFBP-4. Zn(2+), at physiological levels, depressed binding of both IGF-I and IGF-II to IGFBP-5, affecting (125)I-IGF-I more than (125)I-IGF-II. Both (125)I-IGF-I and (125)I-IGF-II bound to high and low affinity sites on IGFBP-5. Zn(2+) converted the high affinity binding sites of IGFBP-5 into low affinity binding sites. An IGF-I analog, (125)I-R(3)-IGF-I, did not bind to the soluble murine IGFBP-5. Zn(2+) also decreased the affinity of the IGF-2R on L6 myoblasts. In contrast, Zn(2+) increased IGF-I, IGF-II and R(3)-IGF-I binding to the IGF-1R by increasing ligand binding affinity on both P(2)A(2a)-LISN and L6 myoblasts. Soluble IGFBP-5 and IGFBP-4 depressed the binding of (125)I-IGF-I and (125)I-IGF-II to the IGF-1R, but did not affect binding of (125)I-R(3)-IGF-I. By depressing the association of the IGFs with soluble IGFBP-5, Zn(2+) partitioned (125)I-IGF-I and (125)I-IGF-II from soluble IGFBP-5 onto cell surface IGF-1Rs. This effect is not seen when soluble L6-derived IGFBP-4 is present in extracellular fluids. We introduce a novel mechanism by which the trace micronutrient Zn(2+) may alter IGF distribution, i.e. Zn(2+) acts to increase IGF-1R binding at the expense of IGF binding to soluble IGFBP-5 and the IGF-2R.

Free access

Berit Svendsen, Ramona Pais, Maja S Engelstoft, Nikolay B Milev, Paul Richards, Charlotte B Christiansen, Kristoffer L Egerod, Signe M Jensen, Abdella M Habib, Fiona M Gribble, Thue W Schwartz, Frank Reimann and Jens J Holst

The incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are secreted from intestinal endocrine cells, the so-called L- and K-cells. The cells are derived from a common precursor and are highly related, and co-expression of the two hormones in so-called L/K-cells has been reported. To investigate the relationship between the GLP1- and GIP-producing cells more closely, we generated a transgenic mouse model expressing a fluorescent marker in GIP-positive cells. In combination with a mouse strain with fluorescent GLP1 cells, we were able to estimate the overlap between the two cell types. Furthermore, we used primary cultured intestinal cells and isolated perfused mouse intestine to measure the secretion of GIP and GLP1 in response to different stimuli. Overlapping GLP1 and GIP cells were rare (∼5%). KCl, glucose and forskolin+IBMX increased the secretion of both GLP1 and GIP, whereas bombesin/neuromedin C only stimulated GLP1 secretion. Expression analysis showed high expression of the bombesin 2 receptor in GLP1 positive cells, but no expression in GIP-positive cells. These data indicate both expressional and functional differences between the GLP1-producing ‘L-cell’ and the GIP-producing ‘K-cell’.

Free access

Weixia Han, Chen Wang, Zhifen Yang, Lin Mu, Ming Wu, Nan Chen, Chunyang Du, Huijun Duan and Yonghong Shi

Renal fibrosis is the major pathological characteristic of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Reportedly, increased SIRT1 expression played a renal protective role in animal models of DN. This study was designed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the protective effects of SRT1720, an SIRT1 activator, against diabetes-induced renal fibrosis. Type 2 diabetic mice (db/db) were treated with SRT1720 (50 mg/kg/day) by gavage for 10 weeks. Renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2 cells) were treated with high glucose (HG, 30 mM) in the presence or absence of SRT1720 (2.5 µM) for 48 h. We observed that impaired SIRT1 expression and activity were restored by SRT1720 administration in db/db mice as well as in HG-treated HK-2 cells. Moreover, SRT1720 administration improved the renal function, attenuated glomerular hypertrophy, mesangial expansion, glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis and inhibited TGFB1 and CTGF expressions and nuclear factor κB (NF-KB) activation in db/db mice. Similarly, HG-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transformation (EMT) and collagen IV and fibronectin expressions were inhibited in SRT1720-treated HK-2 cells. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that SRT1720 suppressed HIF1A, GLUT1 and SNAIL expressions both in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, HIF1A or GLUT1 knockdown effectively abrogated HG-induced EMT and collagen IV and fibronectin expressions in HK-2 cells. These findings suggest that SRT1720 prevented diabetes-induced renal fibrosis via the SIRT1/HIF1A/GLUT1/SNAIL pathway.

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E A Parker, A Hegde, M Buckley, K M Barnes, J Baron and O Nilsson

Previous studies of the GH–IGF system gene expression in growth plate using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization have yielded conflicting results. We therefore studied the spatial and temporal patterns of mRNA expression of the GH–IGF system in the rat proximal tibial growth plate quantitatively. Growth plates were microdissected into individual zones. RNA was extracted, reverse transcribed and analyzed by real-time PCR. In 1-week-old animals, IGF-I mRNA expression was minimal in growth plate compared with perichondrium, metaphyseal bone, muscle, and liver (70-, 130-, 215-, and 400-fold less). In contrast, IGF-II mRNA was expressed at higher levels than in bone and liver (65- and 2-fold). IGF-II expression was higher in the proliferative and resting zones compared with the hypertrophic zone (P < 0.001). GH receptor and type 1 and 2 IGF receptors were expressed throughout the growth plate. Expression of IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs)-1 through -6 mRNA was low throughout the growth plate compared with perichondrium and bone. With increasing age (3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-week castrated rats), IGF-I mRNA levels increased in the proliferative zone (PZ) but remained at least tenfold lower than levels in perichondrium and bone. IGF-II mRNA decreased dramatically in PZ (780-fold; P < 0.001) whereas, type 2 IGF receptor and IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2, IGFBP-3, and IGFBP-4 increased significantly with age in growth plate and/or surrounding perichondrium and bone. These data suggest that IGF-I protein in the growth plate is not produced primarily by the chondrocytes themselves. Instead, it derives from surrounding perichondrium and bone. In addition, the decrease in growth velocity that occurs with age may be caused, in part, by decreasing expression of IGF-II and increasing expression of type 2 IGF receptor and multiple IGFBPs.

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Thangiah Geetha, Paul Langlais, Michael Caruso and Zhengping Yi

Skeletal muscle insulin resistance is an early abnormality in individuals with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1) plays a key role in insulin signaling, the function of which is regulated by both phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of tyrosine and serine/threonine residues. Numerous studies have focused on kinases in IRS1 phosphorylation and insulin resistance; however, the mechanism for serine/threonine phosphatase action in insulin signaling is largely unknown. Recently, we identified protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) regulatory subunit 12A (PPP1R12A) as a novel endogenous insulin-stimulated interaction partner of IRS1 in L6 myotubes. The current study was undertaken to better understand PPP1R12A's role in insulin signaling. Insulin stimulation promoted an interaction between the IRS1/p85 complex and PPP1R12A; however, p85 and PPP1R12A did not interact independent of IRS1. Moreover, kinase inhibition experiments indicated that insulin-induced interaction between IRS1 and PPP1R12A was reduced by treatment with inhibitors of phosphatidylinositide 3 kinase, PDK1, Akt, and mTOR/raptor but not MAPK. Furthermore, a novel insulin-stimulated IRS1 interaction partner, PP1 catalytic subunit (PP1cδ), was identified, and its interaction with IRS1 was also disrupted by inhibitors of Akt and mTOR/raptor. These results indicate that PPP1R12A and PP1cδ are new members of the insulin-stimulated IRS1 signaling complex, and the interaction of PPP1R12A and PP1cδ with IRS1 is dependent on Akt and mTOR/raptor activation. These findings provide evidence for the involvement of a particular PP1 complex, PPP1R12A/PP1cδ, in insulin signaling and may lead to a better understanding of dysregulated IRS1 phosphorylation in insulin resistance and T2D.