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Free access

SJ Conroy, I Green, G Dixon, PM Byrne, J Nolan, YH Abdel-Wahab, N McClenaghan, PR Flatt and P Newsholme

We have previously reported that newly diagnosed Type-1 diabetic patient sera potently suppressed insulin secretion from a clonal rat pancreatic beta-cell line (BRIN BD11) but did not alter cell viability. Here, we report that apoptosis in BRIN BD11 cells incubated in various sera types (fetal calf serum (FCS), normal human serum and Type-1 diabetic patient) was virtually undetectable. Although low levels of necrosis were detected, these were not significantly different between cells incubated in sera from different sources. ATP levels were reduced by approximately 30% while nitrite production increased twofold from BRIN BD11 cells incubated for 24 h in the presence of Type-1 diabetic patient sera compared with normal human sera. Additionally, ATP levels were reduced by approximately 40% and DNA fragmentation increased by more than 20-fold in BRIN BD11 cells incubated in FCS in the presence of a pro-inflammatory cytokine cocktail (interleukin-1beta, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma), compared with cells incubated in the absence of cytokines. Nitric oxide production from BRIN BD11 cells was markedly increased (up to 10-fold) irrespective of sera type when the cytokine cocktail was included in the incubation medium. Type-1 diabetic patient sera significantly (P<0.001) raised basal levels of intracellular free Ca(2+ )concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in BRIN BD11 cells after a 24-h incubation. The alteration in [Ca(2+)](i) concentration was complement dependent, as removal of the early complement components C1q and C3 resulted in a significant reduction (P<0.01) of sera-induced [Ca(2+)](i )changes. We propose that the mechanism of Type-1 diabetic patient sera-induced inhibition of insulin secretion from clonal beta-cells may involve complement-stimulated elevation of [Ca(2+)](i) which attenuates the nutrient-induced insulin secretory process possibly by desensitizing the cell to further changes in Ca(2+).

Free access

Thangiah Geetha, Paul Langlais, Michael Caruso and Zhengping Yi

Skeletal muscle insulin resistance is an early abnormality in individuals with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1) plays a key role in insulin signaling, the function of which is regulated by both phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of tyrosine and serine/threonine residues. Numerous studies have focused on kinases in IRS1 phosphorylation and insulin resistance; however, the mechanism for serine/threonine phosphatase action in insulin signaling is largely unknown. Recently, we identified protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) regulatory subunit 12A (PPP1R12A) as a novel endogenous insulin-stimulated interaction partner of IRS1 in L6 myotubes. The current study was undertaken to better understand PPP1R12A's role in insulin signaling. Insulin stimulation promoted an interaction between the IRS1/p85 complex and PPP1R12A; however, p85 and PPP1R12A did not interact independent of IRS1. Moreover, kinase inhibition experiments indicated that insulin-induced interaction between IRS1 and PPP1R12A was reduced by treatment with inhibitors of phosphatidylinositide 3 kinase, PDK1, Akt, and mTOR/raptor but not MAPK. Furthermore, a novel insulin-stimulated IRS1 interaction partner, PP1 catalytic subunit (PP1cδ), was identified, and its interaction with IRS1 was also disrupted by inhibitors of Akt and mTOR/raptor. These results indicate that PPP1R12A and PP1cδ are new members of the insulin-stimulated IRS1 signaling complex, and the interaction of PPP1R12A and PP1cδ with IRS1 is dependent on Akt and mTOR/raptor activation. These findings provide evidence for the involvement of a particular PP1 complex, PPP1R12A/PP1cδ, in insulin signaling and may lead to a better understanding of dysregulated IRS1 phosphorylation in insulin resistance and T2D.

Free access

Patricia Vázquez, Isabel Roncero, Enrique Blázquez and Elvira Alvarez

Several G-protein-coupled receptors contain cysteine residues in the C-terminal tail that may modulate receptor function. In this work we analysed the substitution of Cys438 by alanine in the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor (GLPR), which led to a threefold decrease in cAMP production, although endocytosis and cellular redistribution of GLP-1 receptor agonist-induced processes were unaffected. Additionally, cysteine residues in the C-terminal tail of several G-protein-coupled receptors were found to act as substrates for palmitoylation, which might modify the access of protein kinases to this region. His-tagged GLP-1 receptors incorporated 3H-palmitate. Nevertheless, substitution of Cys438 prevented the incorporation of palmitate. Accordingly, we also investigated the effect of substitution of the consensus sequence by protein kinase C (PKC) Ser431/432 in both wild-type and Ala438 GLP-1 receptors. Substitution of Ser431/432 by alanine did not modify the ability of wild-type receptors to stimulate adenylate cyclase or endocytosis and recycling processes. By contrast, the substitution of Ser431/432 by alanine in the receptor containing Ala438 increased the ability to stimulate adenylate cyclase. All types of receptors were mainly internalised through coated pits. Thus, cysteine 438 in the cytoplasmic tail of the GLP-1 receptor would regulate its interaction with G-proteins and the stimulation of adenylyl cyclase. Palmitoylation of this residue might control the access of PKC to Ser431/432.

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J M Oldham, J A K Martyn, S P Kirk, J R Napier and J J Bass


The relative abundance and location of type 1 IGF receptors in sheep muscles have been measured to determine whether changes occur during post-natal growth and nutritional stress. Using the technique of histological autoradiography, specific binding of 125I-IGF-I in muscle fibre and connective tissue of M. biceps femoris and M. gastrocnemius was demonstrated, as was specific binding to the tendon of M. gastrocnemius and the surrounding connective tissue. The binding site in both muscles was characterised as the type 1 IGF receptor in membrane preparations using competitive binding assay and SDS-PAGE.

Type 1 receptors were more abundant in connective tissue than muscle fibre or tendon (P≤0·001). Levels changed significantly with age in all tissues (P=0·054 to P≤ 0·001), while change as a result of fasting was limited to a receptor increase in the connective tissue of M. gastrocnemius (P=0·034). IGF-I mRNA in M. bicepsfemoris, as assessed by in situ hybridisation, showed changes in expression with increasing age (P≤ 0·025) but no change with fasting.

These data indicate that the distribution, relative abundance and nutritional sensitivity of type 1 receptors are related to cell type in vivo. The overall decline of receptors with increasing age may be a feature of transition from linear animal growth to cell maintenance in adult animals. Connective tissue appears to be more sensitive than muscle fibre to nutrition, possibly allowing the reduction of non-essential metabolism during fasting.

Journal of Endocrinology (1996) 148, 337–346

Restricted access

D. Janjic and M. Asfari


To investigate further the role of cytokines in the pathogenesis of type I insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, the effects of interleukin-1β (IL-1), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF) and γ-interferon (IFN) were tested on rat insulinoma INS-1 cells. Whereas TNF and IFN had, respectively, a minor or no effect on insulin production, IL-1 caused a time- and dose-dependent decrease in insulin release and lowered the insulin content as well as the preproinsulin mRNA content of INS-1 cells. Both IL-1 and TNF exerted a cytostatic effect, estimated by a decrease in [3H]thymidine incorporation, while only IL-1 decreased cell viability as measured by the colorimetric 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) test.

The glutathione content of INS-1 cells was shown to be modulated by the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol in the culture medium, but was not affected by IL-1 or TNF.

In conclusion, INS-1 cell culture is considered to be a useful model for studying the effect of cytokines on insulin-producing cells. The differentiated features of these cells will permit several questions to be addressed regarding the mechanism of action of IL-1 and eventually other cytokines, both at the level of gene expression and of intracellular signalling.

Journal of Endocrinology (1992) 132, 67–76

Free access

ME Guibbolini, PM Pierson and B Lahlou

Neurohypophysial hormone receptors and second messengers were studied in trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes. Arginine vasotocin (AVT) and isotocin (IT) elicited a concentration-dependent inhibition of cAMP accumulation in the presence of 5x10(-8) M glucagon (maximal effect for 4.5x10(-7) M and 1.4x10(-7) M, half-maximal effect for 2.1x10(-8) M and 0.7x10(-8) M, AVT and IT respectively). The effect of glucagon was inhibited up to 90% by AVT and 80% by IT. While AVT inhibited (up to 50%) the basal cAMP production, IT had no such action. Specific V(1) or V(2) analogues (with reference to vasopressin in mammals) were used for pharmacological characterization of the type of neurohypophysial hormone receptor involved in this inhibition. The V(1) agonist [Phe(2), Orn(8)]-oxytocin inhibited the glucagon-stimulated cAMP production with a maximal effect for 6x10(-7) M and a half-maximal effect for 0.9x10(-8) M concentrations of the analogue. While the V(1) agonist reduced the glucagon-stimulated cAMP level by 70%, it showed only a tendency to reduce the basal level. The V(2) agonist [deamino(1), Val(4),d -Arg(8)]-vasopressin had no effect either on basal or on glucagon-stimulated cAMP production. The V(1) antagonist [d(CH(2))(5)(1), O-Me-Tyr(2), Arg(8)]-vasopressin totally reversed the 10(-8) M AVT-induced inhibition of 5x10(-8) M glucagon-stimulated cAMP production, whereas the V(2) antagonist [d(CH(2))(5)(1),d -Ile(2), Ile(4), Arg(8), Ala(9)]-vasopressin had no such effect. In this particular case, maximal and half-maximal effects of the V(1) antagonist were obtained for 2.3x10(-6) M and 1. 2x10(-6 )M respectively. Changes in intracellular calcium content were measured using the fluorescent probe FURA-2/AM. AVT and IT elicited a concentration-dependent increase in Ca(2+) accumulation. The comparison of the effect of 10(-8) M agonists versus AVT showed the following order of potency: AVT=IT>V(1) agonist>V(2) agonist. The V(1) antagonist reversed the AVT-induced Ca(2+) accumulation whereas the V(2) antagonist had no such effect. These results are taken as evidence for the presence in trout hepatocytes of neurohypophysial hormone receptors functionally close to the V(1a)-type linked to cAMP production and Ca(2+) mobilization.

Free access

Suwattanee Kooptiwut, Wanthanee Hanchang, Namoiy Semprasert, Mutita Junking, Thawornchai Limjindaporn and Pa-thai Yenchitsomanus

Hypogonadism in men is associated with an increased incidence of type 2 diabetes. Supplementation with testosterone has been shown to protect pancreatic β-cell against apoptosis due to toxic substances including streptozotocin and high glucose. One of the pathological mechanisms of glucose-induced pancreatic β-cell apoptosis is the induction of the local rennin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS). The role of testosterone in regulation of the pancreatic RAAS is still unknown. This study aims to investigate the protective action of testosterone against glucotoxicity-induced pancreatic β-cell apoptosis via alteration of the pancreatic RAAS pathway. Rat insulinoma cell line (INS-1) cells or isolated male mouse islets were cultured in basal and high-glucose media in the presence or absence of testosterone, losartan, and angiotensin II (Ang II), then cell apoptosis, cleaved caspase 3 expression, oxidative stress, and expression of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1) and p47phox mRNA and protein were measured. Testosterone and losartan showed similar effects in reducing pancreatic β-cell apoptosis. Testosterone significantly reduced expression of AGTR1 protein in INS-1 cells cultured in high-glucose medium or high-glucose medium with Ang II. Testosterone decreased the expression of AGTR1 and p47phox mRNA and protein in comparison with levels in cells cultured in high-glucose medium alone. Furthermore, testosterone attenuated superoxide production when co-cultured with high-glucose medium. In contrast, when cultured in basal glucose, supplementation of testosterone did not have any effect on cell apoptosis, oxidative stress, and expression of AGT1R and p47phox. In addition, high-glucose medium did not increase cleaved caspase 3 in AGTR1 knockdown experiments. Thus, our results indicated that testosterone prevents pancreatic β-cell apoptosis due to glucotoxicity through reduction of the expression of ATGR1 and its signaling pathway.

Free access

G Üçkaya, P Delagrange, A Chavanieu, G Grassy, M-F Berthault, A Ktorza, E Cerasi, G Leibowitz and N Kaiser

Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) analogues are considered potential drugs for type 2 diabetes. We studied the effect of a novel GLP-1 analogue, S 23521 ([a8-des R36] GLP-1-[7–37]-NH2), on the metabolic state and β-cell function, proliferation and survival in the Psammomys obesus model of diet-induced type 2 diabetes. Animals with marked hyperglycaemia after 6 days of high-energy diet were given twice-daily s.c. injection of 100 μg/kg S 23521 for 15 days. Food intake was significantly decreased in S 23251-treated P. obesus; however, there was no significant difference in body weight from controls. Progressive worsening of hyperglycaemia was noted in controls, as opposed to maintenance of pre-treatment glucose levels in the S 23521 group. Prevention of diabetes progression was associated with reduced mortality. In addition, the treated group had higher serum insulin, insulinogenic index and leptin, whereas plasma triglyceride and non-esterified fatty acid levels were decreased. S 23521 had pronounced effect on pancreatic insulin, which was 5-fold higher than the markedly depleted insulin reserve of control animals. Immunohistochemical analysis showed islet degranulation with disrupted morphology in untreated animals, whereas islets from S 23521-treated animals appeared intact and filled with insulin; β-cell apoptosis was approximately 70% reduced, without a change in β-cell proliferation. S 23521 treatment resulted in a 2-fold increase in relative β-cell volume. Overall, S 23521 prevented the progression of diabetes in P. obesus with marked improvement of the metabolic profile, including increased pancreatic insulin reserve, β-cell viability and mass. These effects are probably due to actions of S 23521 both directly on islets and via reduced food intake, and emphasize the feasibility of preventing blood glucose deterioration over time in type 2 diabetes.

Free access

Guillaume Mabilleau, Marie Pereira and Chantal Chenu

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) leads to bone fragility and predisposes to increased risk of fracture, poor bone healing and other skeletal complications. In addition, some anti-diabetic therapies for T2DM can have notable detrimental skeletal effects. Thus, an appropriate therapeutic strategy for T2DM should not only be effective in re-establishing good glycaemic control but also in minimising skeletal complications. There is increasing evidence that glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs), now greatly prescribed for the treatment of T2DM, have beneficial skeletal effects although the underlying mechanisms are not completely understood. This review provides an overview of the direct and indirect effects of GLP-1RAs on bone physiology, focusing on bone quality and novel mechanisms of action on the vasculature and hormonal regulation. The overall experimental studies indicate significant positive skeletal effects of GLP-1RAs on bone quality and strength although their mechanisms of actions may differ according to various GLP-1RAs and clinical studies supporting their bone protective effects are still lacking. The possibility that GLP-1RAs could improve blood supply to bone, which is essential for skeletal health, is of major interest and suggests that GLP-1 anti-diabetic therapy could benefit the rising number of elderly T2DM patients with osteoporosis and high fracture risk.

Free access

Maaike M Roefs, Françoise Carlotti, Katherine Jones, Hannah Wills, Alexander Hamilton, Michael Verschoor, Joanna M Williams Durkin, Laura Garcia-Perez, Melissa F Brereton, Laura McCulloch, Marten A Engelse, Paul R V Johnson, Barbara C Hansen, Kevin Docherty, Eelco J P de Koning and Anne Clark

Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is associated with pancreatic islet dysfunction. Loss of β-cell identity has been implicated via dedifferentiation or conversion to other pancreatic endocrine cell types. How these transitions contribute to the onset and progression of T2DM in vivo is unknown. The aims of this study were to determine the degree of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition occurring in α and β cells in vivo and to relate this to diabetes-associated (patho)physiological conditions. The proportion of islet cells expressing the mesenchymal marker vimentin was determined by immunohistochemistry and quantitative morphometry in specimens of pancreas from human donors with T2DM (n = 28) and without diabetes (ND, n = 38) and in non-human primates at different stages of the diabetic syndrome: normoglycaemic (ND, n = 4), obese, hyperinsulinaemic (HI, n = 4) and hyperglycaemic (DM, n = 8). Vimentin co-localised more frequently with glucagon (α-cells) than with insulin (β-cells) in the human ND group (1.43% total α-cells, 0.98% total β-cells, median; P < 0.05); these proportions were higher in T2DM than ND (median 4.53% α-, 2.53% β-cells; P < 0.05). Vimentin-positive β-cells were not apoptotic, had reduced expression of Nkx6.1 and Pdx1, and were not associated with islet amyloidosis or with bihormonal expression (insulin + glucagon). In non-human primates, vimentin-positive β-cell proportion was larger in the diabetic than the ND group (6.85 vs 0.50%, medians respectively, P < 0.05), but was similar in ND and HI groups. In conclusion, islet cell expression of vimentin indicates a degree of plasticity and dedifferentiation with potential loss of cellular identity in diabetes. This could contribute to α- and β-cell dysfunction in T2DM.