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Free access

Ashley Gray, William J Aronson, R James Barnard, Hemal Mehta, Junxiang Wan, Jonathan Said, Pinchas Cohen and Colette Galet

Circulating insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 (IGFBP1) levels vary in response to nutritional status, and pre-clinical studies suggest that elevated IGFBP1 may be protective against the development and progression of prostate cancer. We hypothesized that global deletion of Igfbp1 would accelerate the development of prostate cancer in a c-Myc transgenic mouse model. To test our hypothesis, c-Myc transgenic mice (Myc/BP-1 wild-type (WT)) were crossed and interbred with the Igfbp1 knockout mice (Myc/BP-1 KO). The animals were placed on a high-protein diet at weaning, weighed every 2 weeks, and euthanized at 16 weeks of age. Prostate histopathology was assessed and proliferation status was determined by Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen analyses. IGF-related serum biomarkers and body composition were measured. No significant difference in the incidence of prostate cancer was observed between the Myc/BP-1 KO and the Myc/BP-1 WT mice (65 and 80% respectively, P=0.48). Proliferation was significantly decreased by 71% in prostate tissue of Myc/BP-1 KO mice compared with Myc/BP-1 WT mice. Myc/BP-1 KO mice exhibited a significant 6.7% increase in body weight relative to the Myc/BP-1 WT mice that was attributed to an increase in fat mass. Fasting insulin levels were higher in the Myc/BP-1 KO mice without any difference between the groups in fasting glucose concentrations. Thus, contrary to our hypothesis, global deletion of Igfbp1 in a c-Myc transgenic mouse model did not accelerate the development of prostate cancer. Global Igfbp1 deletion did result in a significant increase in body weight and body fat mass. Further studies are required to understand the underlying mechanisms for these metabolic effects.

Free access

L Monetini, F Barone, L Stefanini, A Petrone, T Walk, G Jung, R Thorpe, P Pozzilli and MG Cavallo

Enhanced cellular immune response to bovine beta-casein has been reported in patients with type 1 diabetes. In this study we aimed to establish beta-casein-specific T cell lines from newly diagnosed type 1 diabetic patients and to characterise these cell lines in terms of phenotype and epitope specificity. Furthermore, since sequence homologies exist between beta-casein and putative beta-cell autoantigens, reactivity to the latter was also investigated. T cell lines were generated from the peripheral blood of nine recent onset type 1 diabetic patients with different HLA-DQ and -DR genotypes, after stimulation with antigen pulsed autologous irradiated antigen presenting cells (APCs) and recombinant human interleukin-2 (rhIL-2). T cell line reactivity was evaluated in response to bovine beta-casein, to 18 overlapping peptides encompassing the whole sequence of beta-casein and to beta-cell antigens, including the human insulinoma cell line, CM, and a peptide from the beta-cell glucose transporter, GLUT-2. T cell lines specific to beta-casein could not be isolated from HLA-matched and -unmatched control subjects. beta-Casein T cell lines reacted to different sequences of the protein, however a higher frequency of T cell reactivity was observed towards the C-terminal portion (peptides B05-14, and B05-17 in 5/9 and 4/9 T cell lines respectively). Furthermore, we found that 1 out of 9 beta-casein-specific T cell lines reacted also to the homologous peptide from GLUT-2, and that 3 out of 4 of tested cell lines reacted also to extracts of the human insulinoma cell line, CM. We conclude that T cell lines specific to bovine beta-casein can be isolated from the peripheral blood of patients with type 1 diabetes; these cell lines react with multiple and different sequences of the protein particularly towards the C-terminal portion. In addition, reactivity of beta-casein T cell lines to human insulinoma extracts and GLUT-2 peptide was detected, suggesting that the potential cross-reactivity with beta-cell antigens deserves further investigation.

Free access

Qinkai Li, Weidong Yin, Manbo Cai, Yi Liu, Hongjie Hou, Qingyun Shen, Chi Zhang, Junxia Xiao, Xiaobo Hu, Qishisan Wu, Makoto Funaki and Yutaka Nakaya

Insulin resistance and dyslipidemia are both considered to be risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Low levels of IGF1 are associated with insulin resistance. Elevation of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concomitant with depression of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) increase the risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Liver secretes IGF1 and catabolizes cholesterol regulated by the rate-limiting enzyme of bile acid synthesis from cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1). NO-1886, a chemically synthesized lipoprotein lipase activator, suppresses diet-induced insulin resistance with the improvement of HDL-C. The goal of the present study is to evaluate whether NO-1886 upregulates IGF1 and CYP7A1 to benefit glucose and cholesterol metabolism. By using human hepatoma cell lines (HepG2 cells) as an in vitro model, we found that NO-1886 promoted IGF1 secretion and CYP7A1 expression through the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5). Pretreatment of cells with AG 490, the inhibitor of STAT pathway, completely abolished NO-1886-induced IGF1 secretion and CYP7A1 expression. Studies performed in Chinese Bama minipigs pointed out an augmentation of plasma IGF1 elicited by a single dose administration of NO-1886. Long-term supplementation with NO-1886 recovered hyperinsulinemia and low plasma levels of IGF1 suppressed LDL-C and facilitated reverse cholesterol transport by decreasing hepatic cholesterol accumulation through increasing CYP7A1 expression in high-fat/high-sucrose/high-cholesterol diet minipigs. These findings indicate that NO-1886 upregulates IGF1 secretion and CYP7A1 expression to improve insulin resistance and hepatic cholesterol accumulation, which may represent an alternative therapeutic avenue of NO-1886 for T2DM and metabolic syndrome.

Free access

K Fosgerau, P Galle, T Hansen, A Albrechtsen, C de Lemos Rieper, B Klarlund Pedersen, L Kongskov Larsen, A Randrup Thomsen, O Pedersen, M Bagge Hansen and A Steensberg


Interleukin-6 (IL6) is critically involved in inflammation and metabolism. About 1% of people produce IL6 autoantibodies (aAb-IL6) that impair IL6 signaling in vivo. We tested the hypothesis that the prevalence of such aAb-IL6 is increased in type 2 diabetic patients and that aAb-IL6 plays a direct role in causing hyperglycemia. In humans, the prevalence of circulating high-affinity neutralizing aAb-IL6 was 2.5% in the type 2 diabetic patients and 1% in the controls (odds ratio 2.5, 95% confidence interval 1.2–4.9, P=0.01). To test for the role of aAb-IL6 in causing hyperglycemia, such aAb-IL6 were induced in mice by a validated vaccination procedure. Mice with plasma levels of aAb-IL6 similar to the 2.5% type 2 diabetic patients developed obesity and impaired glucose tolerance (area under the curve (AUC) glucose, 2056±62 vs 1793±62, P=0.05) as compared with sham-vaccinated mice, when challenged with a high-fat diet. Mice with very high plasma levels of aAb-IL6 developed elevated fasting plasma glucose (mM, 4.8±0.4 vs 3.3±0.1, P<0.001) and impaired glucose tolerance (AUC glucose, 1340±38 vs 916±25, P<0.001) as compared with sham-control mice on normal chow. In conclusion, the prevalence of plasma aAb-IL6 at levels known to impair IL6 signaling in vivo is increased 2.5-fold in people with type 2 diabetes. In mice, matching levels of aAb-IL6 cause obesity and hyperglycemia. These data suggest that a small subset of type 2 diabetes may in part evolve from an autoimmune attack against IL6.

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H Huang, K Rajkumar and L J Murphy


The hepatic and renal expressions of the insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) were examined in transgenic (Tg) mice which overexpress a rat IGFBP-1 transgene driven by the phosphoglycerate kinase-1 promoter. There were no significant differences in the abundance of serum IGFBPs in Tg and wild-type (Wt) mice. Although total hepatic IGFBP-1 mRNA (mouse and transgene-derived) levels were similar in Tg mice to the levels of mouse IGFBP-1 mRNA in Wt mice on day 1 of life, in Tg mice only ∼30% of the IGFBP-1 mRNA was derived from transcription of the mouse gene. An age-related decline in hepatic IGFBP-1 mRNA levels was apparent in both Tg and Wt mice. Food deprivation resulted in increased levels of mouse IGFBP-1 mRNA but the total IGFBP-1 mRNA levels were not significantly different in Tg and Wt mice. In the kidney, unlike the liver, IGFBP-1 mRNA levels in Tg mice were markedly elevated compared with Wt mice and no significant decline was seen with age. Northern blots of hepatic and renal RNA demonstrated similar levels of IGFBP-3, -4, -5 and -6 mRNAs in Tg and Wt mice. From these data we can conclude that in the liver expression of the transgene leads to a coordinated reduction in mouse IGFBP-1 mRNA levels.

Journal of Endocrinology (1997) 152, 99–108

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Pieces of human foetal pancreas were incubated under control conditions and in media containing different stimuli of insulin release. Insulin secretion was stimulated from the pancreases of foetuses (83–625 g body weight) which were of 16–24 weeks gestational age. Potassium (60 mmol/l), barium (2·54 mmol/l) and ouabain (10−5 mol/l) were effective stimuli in all experiments. Glucagon (5 μg/ml), theophylline (1 mmol/l) and dibutyryl 3′,5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (1 mmol/l) stimulated insulin secretion in media containing 0, 0·6 or 3·0 mg glucose/ml. Theophylline and dibutyryl 3′,5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate were effective in all experients and glucagon stimulated insulin release in four out of six experiments. At all ages studied, histological examination of the pancreas after each experiment revealed islets of Langerhans containing β cells. In most cases the islets were of the mantle type but occasionally bipolar islets were seen. Cellular normality, as judged by light microscopy, was preserved after periods of incubation for up to 5½ h. Glycogen was demonstrable in the pancreatic acinar tissue but not in the islets.

The results of these experiments indicate that, between the 16th and 24th week of foetal life, the human β cell is capable of releasing insulin in vitro when stimulated appropriately.

Free access

Rosalia C M Simmen, Dustin M Brown, Charles M Quick, Iad Alhallak, Tyler Rose, Shi J Liu and Angela S Kelley

Type 1 diabetes mellitus and endometriosis separately affect millions of women worldwide. Reproductive-age women diagnosed with type 1 diabetes may also suffer from endometriosis, but the asymptomatic pre-clinical period of highly variable duration for each condition can lead to challenges in the timely recognition of co-morbid disease onset and misdiagnosis. While knowledge of the pathogenesis of each condition has grown substantially, co-morbid endometriosis and type 1 diabetes has not been widely considered and much less addressed. This review discusses the molecular rationale for the likelihood of their co-existence, and prospects for improvements in therapeutic strategies and reduced complications, if this paradigm is included as a significant variable in disease management.

Free access

Jennifer S ten Kulve, Dick J Veltman, Liselotte van Bloemendaal, Paul F C Groot, Henricus G Ruhé, Frederik Barkhof, Michaela Diamant and Richard G Ijzerman

Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1) affects appetite, supposedly mediated via the central nervous system (CNS). In this study, we investigate whether modulation of CNS responses to palatable food consumption may be a mechanism by which GLP1 contributes to the central regulation of feeding. Using functional MRI, we determined the effects of endogenous GLP1 and treatment with the GLP1 analogue liraglutide on CNS activation to chocolate milk receipt. Study 1 included 20 healthy lean individuals and 20 obese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Scans were performed on two occasions: during infusion of the GLP1 receptor antagonist exendin 9–39 (blocking actions of endogenous GLP1) and during placebo infusion. Study 2 was a randomised, cross-over intervention study carried out in 20 T2DM patients, comparing treatment with liraglutide to insulin, after 10 days and 12 weeks. Compared with lean individuals, T2DM patients showed reduced activation to chocolate milk in right insula (P = 0.04). In lean individuals, blockade of endogenous GLP1 effects inhibited activation in bilateral insula (P ≤ 0.03). Treatment in T2DM with liraglutide, vs insulin, increased activation to chocolate milk in right insula and caudate nucleus after 10 days (P ≤ 0.03); however, these effects ceased to be significant after 12 weeks. Our findings in healthy lean individuals indicate that endogenous GLP1 is involved in the central regulation of feeding by affecting central responsiveness to palatable food consumption. In obese T2DM, treatment with liraglutide may improve the observed deficit in responsiveness to palatable food, which may contribute to the induction of weight loss observed during treatment. However, no long-term effects of liraglutide were observed.

Free access

Jennifer A Crookshank, Daniel Serrano, Gen-Sheng Wang, Christopher Patrick, Baylie S Morgan, Marie-France Paré and Fraser W Scott

It is unknown whether there is a gene signature in pancreas which is associated with type 1 diabetes (T1D). We performed partial pancreatectomies on 30-day preinsulitic, diabetes-prone BioBreeding (BBdp) rats to prospectively identify factors involved in early prediabetes. Microarrays of the biopsies revealed downregulation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, metabolism and apoptosis. Based on these results, additional investigations compared gene expression in control (BBc) and BBdp rats age ~8, 30 and 60 days using RT-qPCR. Neonates had increased ER stress gene expression in pancreas. This was associated with decreased insulin, cleaved caspase-3 and Ins1 whereas Gcg and Pcsk2 were increased. The increase in ER stress was not sustained at 30 days and decreased by 60 days. In parallel, the liver gene profile showed a similar signature in neonates but with an early decrease of the unfolded protein response (UPR) at 30 days. This suggested that changes in the liver precede those in the pancreas. Tnf and Il1b expression was increased in BBdp pancreas in association with increased caspase-1, cleaved caspase-3 and decreased proinsulin area. Glucagon area was increased in both 30-day and 60-day BBdp rats. Increased colocalization of BIP and proinsulin was observed at 60 days in the pancreas, suggesting insulin-related ER dysfunction. We propose that dysregulated metabolism leads to ER stress in neonatal rats long before insulitis, creating a microenvironment in both pancreas and liver that promotes autoimmunity.

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J. Jansen, S. C. van Buul-Offers, C. M. Hoogerbrugge, T. L. de Poorter, M. T. Corvol and J. L. Van den Brande


The interaction of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF-II with specific type-I and -II receptor sites on rabbit articular chondrocyte membranes was studied. With labelled IGF-I as tracer, half-maximal displacement of the label was obtained with 1·4 ng IGF-I/ml and 22 ng IGF-II/ml. Using IGF-II as labelled peptide, 16 ng unlabelled IGF-II/ml and 200 ng IGF-I/ml were needed to inhibit the binding by 50%. Covalent cross-linking experiments revealed the presence of typical type-I (M r 130 000 under reducing conditions) and type-II (M r 260 000) receptor sites. In addition, with 125I-labelled IGF-II a very intense labelled band appeared at M r > 300 000. This band was not found in mouse liver membranes and human placental membranes.

Journal of Endocrinology (1989) 120, 245–249