Erratic regulation of glucose metabolism including hyperglycemia is a common condition in premature infants and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to examine histological and ultrastructural differences in the endocrine pancreas in fetal (throughout gestation) and neonatal baboons. Twelve fetal baboons were delivered at 125 days (d) gestational age (GA), 140d GA, or 175d GA. Eight animals were delivered at term (185d GA); half were fed for 5 days. Seventy-three nondiabetic adult baboons were used for comparison. Pancreatic tissue was studied using light microscopy, confocal imaging, and electron microscopy. The fetal and neonatal endocrine pancreas islet architecture became more organized as GA advanced. The percent areas of α-β-δ-cell type were similar within each fetal and newborn GA (NS) but were higher than the adults (P<0.05) regardless of GA. The ratio of β cells within the islet (whole and core) increased with gestation (P<0.01). Neonatal baboons, which survived for 5 days (feeding), had a 2.5-fold increase in pancreas weight compared with their counterparts killed at birth (P=0.01). Endocrine cells were also found in exocrine ductal and acinar cells in 125, 140 and 175d GA fetuses. Subpopulation of tissue that coexpressed trypsin and glucagon/insulin shows the presence of cells with mixed endo–exocrine lineage in fetuses. In summary, the fetal endocrine pancreas has no prevalence of a α-β-δ-cell type with larger endocrine cell percent areas than adults. Cells with mixed endocrine/exocrine phenotype occur during fetal development. Developmental differences may play a role in glucose homeostasis during the neonatal period and may have long-term implications.
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- Abstract: Diabetes x
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Amy R Quinn, Cynthia L Blanco, Carla Perego, Giovanna Finzi, Stefano La Rosa, Carlo Capella, Rodolfo Guardado-Mendoza, Francesca Casiraghi, Amalia Gastaldelli, Marney Johnson, Edward J Dick Jr and Franco Folli
Lyle Wiemerslage, Priya A Gohel, Giulia Maestri, Torfi G Hilmarsson, Michel Mickael, Robert Fredriksson, Michael J Williams and Helgi B Schiöth
Transmembrane protein 18 (TMEM18) is an ill-described, obesity-related gene, but few studies have explored its molecular function. We found single-nucleotide polymorphism data, suggesting that TMEM18 may be involved in the regulation/physiology of metabolic syndrome based on associations with insulin, homeostatic model assessment-β (HOMAβ), triglycerides, and blood sugar. We then found an ortholog in the Drosophila genome, knocked down Drosophila Tmem18 specifically in insulin-producing cells, and tested for its effects on metabolic function. Our results suggest that TMEM18 affects substrate levels through insulin and glucagon signaling, and its downregulation induces a metabolic state resembling type 2 diabetes. This work is the first to experimentally describe the metabolic consequences of TMEM18 knockdown, and further supports its association with obesity.
R Kooijman, G T Rijkers and B J M Zegers
IGF-I stimulates the proliferation and differentiation of many cell types. In the case of T cells, IGF-I has been described to potentiate mitogen-induced DNA synthesis. We have addressed the working mechanism of IGF-I on T cell proliferation by measuring the effects of IGF-I on various stages of T cell activation. We found that IGF-I augmented the phytohaemagglutinin- and anti-CD3-induced interleukin-2 (IL2) production of human peripheral T cells before they enter the S phase of the cell cycle. Furthermore, the addition of IGF-I did not influence DNA synthesis of IL2-dependent growing T cells.
Journal of Endocrinology (1996) 149, 351–356
Kai-Chun Cheng, Ying-Xiao Li, Akihiro Asakawa, Miharu Ushikai, Ikuo Kato, Yuki Sato, Juei-Tang Cheng and Akio Inui
We aimed to characterize the effects of preptin on insulin secretion at the single-cell level, as well as the mechanisms underlying these changes, with respect to regulation by intracellular Ca2+ [Ca2+]i mobilization. This study assessed the effect of preptin on insulin secretion and investigated the link between preptin and the phospholipase C (PLC)/protein kinase C (PKC) pathway at the cellular level using fura-2 pentakis(acetoxymethyl) ester-loaded insulin-producing cells (Min 6 cells). Our results demonstrate that preptin promotes insulin secretion in a concentration-dependent manner. Using a PLC inhibitor (chelerythrine) or a PKC inhibitor (U73122) resulted in a concentration-dependent decrease in insulin secretion. Also, preptin mixed with IGF2 receptor (IGF2R) antibodies suppressed insulin secretion in a dose-dependent manner, which indicates that activation of IGF2R is mediated probably because preptin is a type of proIGF2. In addition, preptin stimulated insulin secretion to a similar level as did glibenclamide. The activation of PKC/PLC by preptin stimulation is highly relevant to the potential mechanisms for increase in insulin secretion. Our results provide new insight into the insulin secretion of preptin, a secreted proIGF2-derived peptide that can induce greater efficacy of signal transduction resulting from PLC and PKC activation through the IGF2R.
FL Norby, Aberle NS 2nd, J Kajstura, P Anversa and J Ren
Diabetic cardiomyopathy is characterized by cardiac dysfunction and altered level/function of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). Both endogenous and exogenous IGF-I have been shown to effectively alleviate diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction and oxidative stress. This study was designed to examine the effect of cardiac overexpression of IGF-I on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced cardiac contractile dysfunction in mouse myocytes. Both IGF-I heterozygous transgenic mice and their wild-type FVB littermates were made diabetic with a single injection of STZ (200 mg/kg, i.p.) and maintained for 2 weeks. The following mechanical indices were evaluated in ventricular myocytes: peak shortening (PS), time-to-PS (TPS), time-to-90% relengthening (TR90) and maximal velocity of shortening/relengthening (+/- dL/dt). Intracellular Ca2+ was evaluated as resting and peak intracellular Ca2+ levels, Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release and intracellular Ca2+ decay rate (tau). STZ led to hyperglycemia in FVB and IGF-I mice. STZ treatment prolonged TPS and TR90, reduced Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release, increased resting intracellular Ca2+ levels and slowed tau associated with normal PS and +/- dL/dt. All of which, except the elevated resting intracellular Ca2+, were prevented by the IGF-I transgene. In addition, myocytes from STZ-treated FVB mice displayed an attenuated contractile response to the beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol, which was restored by the IGF-I transgene. Contractile response to the alpha-adrenergic agonist phenylephrine and angiotensin II was not affected by either STZ treatment or IGF-I. These results validate the beneficial role of IGF-I in diabetic cardiomyopathy, possibly due to an improved beta-adrenergic response.
C H Blomquist, B S Leung, C Beaudoin, D Poirier and Y Tremblay
There is growing evidence that various isoforms of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17-HSD) are regulated at the level of catalysis in intact cells. A number of investigators have proposed that the NAD(P)/NAD(P)H ratio may control the direction of reaction. In a previous study, we obtained evidence that A431 cells, derived from an epidermoid carcinoma of the vulva, are enriched in 17-HSD type 2, a membrane-bound isoform reactive with C18 and C19 17β-hydroxysteroids and 17-ketosteroids. The present investigation was undertaken to confirm the presence of 17-HSD type 2 in A431 cells and to assess intracellular regulation of 17-HSD at the level of catalysis by comparing the activity of homogenates and microsomes with that of cell monolayers. Northern blot analysis confirmed the presence of 17-HSD type 2 mRNA. Exposure of cells to epidermal growth factor resulted in an increase in type 2 mRNA and, for microsomes, increases in maximum velocity (V max) with no change in Michaelis constant (K m) for testosterone and androstenedione, resulting in equivalent increases in the V max/K m ratio consistent with the presence of a single enzyme. Initial velocity data and inhibition patterns were consistent with a highly ordered reaction sequence in vitro in which testosterone and androstenedione bind only to either an enzyme–NAD or an enzyme–NADH complex respectively. Microsomal dehydrogenase activity with testosterone was 2- to 3-fold higher than reductase activity with androstenedione. In contrast, although cell monolayers rapidly converted testosterone to androstenedione, reductase activity with androstenedione or dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) was barely detectable. Lactate but not glucose, pyruvate or isocitrate stimulated the conversion of androstenedione to testosterone by monolayers, suggesting that cytoplasmic NADH may be the cofactor for 17-HSD type 2 reductase activity with androstenedione. However, exposure to lactate did not result in a significant change in the NAD/NADH ratio of cell monolayers. It appears that within A431 cells 17-HSD type 2 is regulated at the level of catalysis to function almost exclusively as a dehydrogenase. These findings give further support to the concept that 17-HSD type 2 functions in vivo principally as a dehydrogenase and that its role as a reductase in testosterone formation by either the Δ4 or Δ5 pathway is limited.
Journal of Endocrinology (1997) 153, 453–464
Shiying Shao, Yun Gao, Bing Xie, Fei Xie, Sai Kiang Lim and GuoDong Li
Shortage of cadaveric pancreata and requirement of immune suppression are two major obstacles in transplantation therapy of type 1 diabetes. Here, we investigate whether i.p. transplantation of alginate-encapsulated insulin-producing cells from the embryo-derived mouse embryo progenitor-derived insulin-producing-1 (MEPI-1) line could lower hyperglycemia in immune-competent, allogeneic diabetic mice. Within days after transplantation, hyperglycemia was reversed followed by about 2.5 months of normo- to moderate hypoglycemia before relapsing. Mice transplanted with unencapsulated MEPI cells relapsed within 2 weeks. Removal of the transplanted capsules by washing of the peritoneal cavity caused an immediate relapse of hyperglycemia that could be reversed with a second transplantation. The removed capsules had fibrotic overgrowth but remained permeable to 70 kDa dextrans and displayed glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Following transplantation, the number of cells in capsules increased initially, before decreasing to below the starting cell number at 75 days. Histological examination showed that beyond day 40 post-transplantation, encapsulated cell clusters exhibited proliferating cells with a necrotic core. Blood glucose, insulin levels, and oral glucose tolerance test in the transplanted animals correlated directly with the number of viable cells remaining in the capsules. Our study demonstrated that encapsulation could effectively protect MEPI cells from the host immune system without compromising their ability to correct hyperglycemia in immune-competent diabetic mice for 2.5 months, thereby providing proof that immunoisolation of expansible but immune-incompatible stem cell-derived surrogate β-cells by encapsulation is a viable diabetes therapy.
Thierry Métayé, Pierre Levillain, Jean-Louis Kraimps and Rémy Perdrisot
TSH, via its G-protein-coupled receptor, activates cell growth of both benign and malignant thyroid tumors. G-protein-coupled receptors (GR) kinase 2 (GRK2) has been reported to regulate the TSH receptor but its role in cancer is unknown. To determine a possible function for GRK2 in the growth process of thyroid cancers, we analysed its expression in normal and tumoral thyroid tissues and studied thyroid cancer cell line proliferation after GRK2 overexpression. Thirty one thyroid tissues, including 16 non-medullary thyroid cancers and 15 adjacent normal tissues, were analysed by immunohistochemistry. Five paired tissues were also studied by western blotting for the GRK2 enzymatic activity. Immunohistochemical staining showed an increase in GRK2 in thyroid cancers including papillary, follicular, and anaplastic types, compared with their adjacent normal tissues. Immunoblot analysis and GRK2 enzymatic activity measurement confirmed immunohistochemical study. TSH and TSH in association with insulin or IGF-I stimulated GRK2 protein accumulation in normal human thyroid cells in primary culture. The TSH effect on the GRK2 expression was mimicked by forskolin. After GRK2 overexpression in two poorly differentiated thyroid cell lines, all the clones showed a significant reduction in cell proliferation, ranging from 28 to 65% inhibition compared with vector alone after 96-h culture. In conclusion, thyroid mitogenic factor-stimulated GRK2 accumulation may explain, in part, high GRK2 levels in differentiated carcinoma, because TSH, insulin, or IGF-I is known to be involved in the thyroid cancer progression. Surprisingly, instead of stimulating, GRK2 reduced cell proliferation revealing a new role for this kinase in the growth of thyroid cancers.
Wenpeng Dong, Ye Jia, Xiuxia Liu, Huan Zhang, Tie Li, Wenlin Huang, Xudong Chen, Fuchun Wang, Weixia Sun and Hao Wu
Oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) plays a key role in cellular defense against oxidative stress. NRF2 activators have shown promising preventive effects on DN. Sodium butyrate (NaB) is a known activator of NRF2. However, it is unknown whether NRF2 is required for NaB protection against DN. Therefore, streptozotocin-induced diabetic C57BL/6 Nrf2 knockout and their wild-type mice were treated in the presence or absence of NaB for 20 weeks. Diabetic mice, but not NaB-treated diabetic mice, developed significant renal oxidative damage, inflammation, apoptosis, fibrosis, pathological changes and albuminuria. NaB inhibited histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity and elevated the expression of Nrf2 and its downstream targets heme oxygenase 1 and NAD(P)H dehydrogenase quinone 1. Notably, deletion of the Nrf2 gene completely abolished NaB activation of NRF2 signaling and protection against diabetes-induced renal injury. Interestingly, the expression of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1, the negative regulator of NRF2, was not altered by NaB under both diabetic and non-diabetic conditions. Moreover, NRF2 nuclear translocation was not promoted by NaB. Therefore, the present study indicates, for the first time, that NRF2 plays a key role in NaB protection against DN. Other findings suggest that NaB may activate Nrf2 at the transcriptional level, possibly by the inhibition of HDAC activity.
Gemma Llauradó, Victòria Ceperuelo-Mallafré, Carme Vilardell, Rafael Simó, Pilar Gil, Albert Cano, Joan Vendrell and José-Miguel González-Clemente
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and arterial stiffness (AS) in subjects with type 1 diabetes without clinical cardiovascular events. A set of 68 patients with type 1 diabetes and 68 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects were evaluated. AGEs were assessed using serum concentrations of N-carboxy-methyl-lysine (CML) and using skin autofluorescence. AS was assessed by aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV), using applanation tonometry. Patients with type 1 diabetes had higher serum concentrations of CML (1.18 vs 0.96 μg/ml; P=0.008) and higher levels of skin autofluorescence (2.10 vs 1.70; P<0.001) compared with controls. These differences remained significant after adjustment for classical cardiovascular risk factors. Skin autofluorescence was positively associated with aPWV in type 1 diabetes (r=0.370; P=0.003). No association was found between CML and aPWV. Skin autofluorescence was independently and significantly associated with aPWV in subjects with type 1 diabetes (β=0.380; P<0.001) after adjustment for classical cardiovascular risk factors. Additional adjustments for HbA1c, disease duration, and low-grade inflammation did not change these results. In conclusion, skin accumulation of autofluorescent AGEs is associated with AS in subjects with type 1 diabetes and no previous cardiovascular events. These findings indicate that determination of tissue AGE accumulation may be a useful marker for AS in type 1 diabetes.