When adipose tissue accumulates in obesity, the ability of preadipocytes to differentiate permits a hyperplastic expansion of functional adipocytes that preserves insulin sensitivity. Adipose infiltration by macrophages is associated with an adipogenic deficit and the appearance of inflamed, insulin-resistant hypertrophied adipocytes. Interleukin 1β (IL1β) has been reported to account for the anti-adipogenic action of macrophages in a mouse model. Using the THP-1 human macrophage cell line and human primary preadipocytes, our objective was to determine whether IL1β was necessary for the ability of conditioned medium from THP-1 macrophages (THP-1-MacCM) to: i) stimulate human preadipocyte inhibitor of κB kinase β (IKKβ) and ii) inhibit human adipocyte differentiation. IL1β is present in THP-1-MacCM, and THP-1-MacCM or IL1β (500 pg/ml; its concentration in THP-1-MacCM) acutely stimulated IKKβ phosphorylation and inhibitor of κB (IκB) degradation in preadipocytes. IL1β was sufficient to inhibit adipogenesis on its own, and this was blocked by SC-514, an IKKβ inhibitor, as has been reported for THP-1-MacCM. IκB degradation by IL1β-immunodepleted THP-1-MacCM was attenuated, whereas IKKβ phosphorylation and the inhibition of adipocyte differentiation were unchanged. Therefore, in contrast to what has been suggested for mouse cell models, IL1β is not required for the ability of MacCM to inhibit adipogenesis in human cell models.
AnneMarie Gagnon, Charlie Foster, Anne Landry and Alexander Sorisky
J Hoppmann, N Perwitz, B Meier, M Fasshauer, D Hadaschik, H Lehnert and J Klein
Obesity is associated with chronic inflammation. Pro-inflammatory adipokines may promote metabolic disorders and cardiovascular morbidity. However, the key mechanisms leading to obesity-related inflammation are poorly understood. The corticosteroid metabolism in adipose tissue plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome. Both the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) mediate corticosteroid action in adipose tissue. The significance of the interplay of these receptors in mediating an inflammatory adipokine response is virtually unexplored. In the present study, we investigated the differential roles of the GR and MR in controlling the key adipose tissue functions including inflammatory adipokine expression and adipogenesis using selective stimulation with receptor agonists, acute receptor knockdown via RNA interference and newly generated knockout adipose cell lines. Selective GR stimulation of white adipocytes with dexamethasone inhibited the expression of interleukin 6 (IL6), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP1 or CCL2 as listed in the MGI Database), tumour necrosis factor-α, chemerin and leptin. By contrast, selective MR stimulation with aldosterone promoted the expression of IL6, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, chemerin and leptin. Furthermore, in the presence of an acute GR knockdown as well as in GR knockout adipocytes, corticosterone increased the gene expression of the pro-inflammatory adipokines IL6 and MCP1. Whereas GR knockout adipocytes displayed a mildly impaired adipogenesis during early differentiation, MR knockout cells completely failed to accumulate lipids. Taken together, our data demonstrate a critical role for the balance between gluco- and mineralocorticoid action in determining adipocyte responses implicated in obesity-associated inflammation and cardiovascular complications.
E P S Conceição, E G Moura, A C Manhães, J C Carvalho, J L Nobre, E Oliveira and P C Lisboa
Rats overfed during lactation show higher visceral adipose tissue (VAT) mass and metabolic dysfunctions at adulthood. As both vitamin D and glucocorticoids change adipogenesis, parameters related to metabolism and action of these hormones in the adipocyte can be altered in rats raised in small litters (SL). We also studied the antiobesity effects of high calcium diet since it decreases visceral fat in obesity models. On postnatal day (PN) 3, litter size was adjusted to 3pups/dam (SL) to induce overfeeding. Control litters (NL) remained with 10pups/dam until weaning. From PN120 to PN180, half of the SL rats were fed standard chow (SL) and the other half was fed a calcium-supplemented chow (SL-Ca, 10g CaCO3/kg). Both SL groups were heavier and hyperphagic when compared with the NL group; however, SL-Ca rats ate less than SL. SL-Ca rats had decreased VAT mass and adipocyte size, associated with lower hypothalamic NPY content, VAT fat acid synthase content and leptinemia. At PN120, SL rats had increased plasma 25(OH)D3, Cyp27b1 mRNA and glucocorticoid receptor (GR-α) in the VAT, but lower vitamin D receptor (Vdr) mRNA. At PN180, Cyp27b1 and GR-α remained higher, while Vdr normalized in SL rats. SL-Ca rats had normal VAT Cyp27b1 and GR-α, but lower Vdr. Thus, higher body mass and glucocorticoid receptors in the VAT of SL rats are normalized by calcium-enriched diet, and Vdr expression in this tissue is reduced, suggesting a possible role of glucocorticoids and vitamin D in calcium action in the adipocyte.
Lei Zhang, Carol Paddon, Mark D Lewis, Fiona Grennan-Jones and Marian Ludgate
Since TSH receptor (TSHR) expression increases during adipogenesis and signals via cAMP/phospho-cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB), reported to be necessary and sufficient for adipogenesis, we hypothesised that TSHR activation would induce preadipocyte differentiation. Retroviral vectors introduced constitutively active TSHR (TSHR*) into 3T3L1 preadipocytes; despite increased cAMP (RIA) and phospho-CREB (western blot) there was no spontaneous adipogenesis (assessed morphologically, using oil red O and QPCR measurement of adipogenesis markers). We speculated that Gβγ signalling may be inhibitory but failed to induce adipogenesis using activated Gsα (gsp*). Inhibition of phosphodiesterases did not promote adipogenesis in TSHR* or gsp* populations. Furthermore, differentiation induced by adipogenic medium with pioglitazone was reduced in TSHR* and abolished in gsp* expressing 3T3L1 cells. TSHR* and gsp* did not inactivate PPARγ (PPARG as listed in the HUGO database) by phosphorylation but expression of PPARγ1 was reduced and PPARγ2 undetectable in gsp*. FOXO1 phosphorylation (required to inactivate this repressor of adipogenesis) was lowest in gsp* despite the activation of AKT by phosphorylation. PROF is a mediator that facilitates FOXO1 phosphorylation by phospho-Akt. Its transcript levels remained constantly low in the gsp* population. In most measurements, the TSHR* cells were between the gsp* and control 3T3L1 preadipocytes. The enhanced down-regulation of PREF1 (adipogenesis inhibitor) permits retention of some adipogenic potential in the TSHR* population. We conclude that Gsα signalling impedes FOXO1 phosphorylation and thus inhibits PPARγ transcription and the alternative promoter usage required to generate PPARγ2, the fat-specific transcription factor necessary for adipogenesis.
Jessica C Hogan and Jacqueline M Stephens
Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is a member of the gp130 cytokine family and signals through the receptor complex of gp130 and the LIF receptor (LIFR) to activate the JAK/STAT signaling cascade. Since LIF activates STATs 1 and 3 in adipocytes, we examined the effects of LIF on 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Our studies clearly demonstrate that LIF treatment had minimal effects on adipocyte differentiation as judged by marker gene expression, but did inhibit triacylglyceride (TAG) accumulation during adipogenesis. Acute treatment with LIF resulted in increased expression of suppressors of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS3) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-δ (C/EBPδ) mRNA in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Moreover, the upregulation of C/EBPδ correlated with binding to three sites in the C/EBPδ promoter by LIF-activated protein complexes that contained STAT1 and not STAT3. Chronic treatment with LIF resulted in decreased protein levels of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP1) and fatty acid synthase (FAS), but had no effect on the expression of other adipocyte marker proteins or on TAG levels in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. LIF had a small effect on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, but did not cause insulin resistance following chronic treatment. These findings indicate that LIF has similar and distinct effects in comparison with the effects of other gp130 cytokines on cultured fat cells. In summary, our results support a role for LIF in the regulation of proteins involved in lipid synthesis and in the modulation of signal transduction pathways in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.
JM Wentworth, TP Burris and VK Chatterjee
A recent prospective clinical study has shown that antiviral therapy with HIV protease inhibitors (PIs) is associated with a syndrome of peripheral fat wasting (lipodystrophy) and disordered glucose and lipid metabolism (Carr et al. 1999). We have studied the effects of indinavir and saquinavir, two HIV protease inhibitors, on cultured primary human preadipocytes and report that these compounds inhibit their differentiation. However, we find that these agents do not inhibit either transcriptional activation or adipocyte P2 gene induction by the PPARgamma/RXR nuclear receptor heterodimer. Together, our findings suggest that impaired adipogenesis is the basis of PI-associated lipodystrophy, but that this occurs via a PPARgamma/RXR-independent mechanism.
Lili Men, Junjie Yao, Shanshan Yu, Yu Li, Siyuan Cui, Shi Jin, Guixin Zhang, Decheng Ren and Jianling Du
The induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is associated with adipogenesis, during which the inositol-requiring enzyme 1 alpha (IRE1α)-X-box-binding protein 1 (XBP1) pathway is involved. Selenoprotein S (SelS), which is an ER resident selenoprotein, is involved in ER homeostasis regulation; however, little is known about the role of SelS in regulating adipogenesis. In vivo studies showed that SelS protein levels in white adipose tissue were increased in obese subjects and high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Moreover, we identified that SelS protein levels increased in the early phase of adipogenesis and then decreased in the late phase during adipogenesis. Overexpression of SelS promoted adipogenesis. Conversely, knockdown (KD) of SelS resulted in the inhibition of adipogenesis, which was related to increasing cell death, decreased mitotic clonal expansion, and cell cycle G1 arrest. In vivo studies also showed that ER stress markers (p-IRE1α/IRE1α, XBP1s, and Grp78) were significantly increased with upregulating of SelS expression in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues in the obese subjects and HFD-fed mice. Furthermore, in SelS KD cells, the levels of Grp78 were increased and the levels of p-IRE1α/IRE1α were unchanged , but mRNA levels of spliced XBP1 (XBP1s) produced by IRE1α-mediated splicing were decreased, suggesting a role of SelS in the modulation of IRE1α-XBP1 pathway. Moreover, inhibition of adipogenesis by SelS suppression can be rescued by overexpression of XBP1s. Thus, SelS appears to function as a novel regulator of adipogenesis through the IRE1α-XBP1 signaling pathway.
Koichiro Taguchi, Kazuo Kajita, Yoshihiko Kitada, Masayuki Fuwa, Motochika Asano, Takahide Ikeda, Toshiko Kajita, Tatsuo Ishizuka, Itaru Kojima and Hiroyuki Morita
Despite extensive investigation, the mechanisms underlying adipogenesis are not fully understood. We previously identified proliferative cells in adipose tissue expressing adipocyte-specific genes, which were named small proliferative adipocytes (SPA). In this study, we investigated the characteristics and roles of SPA in adipose tissue. Epididymal and inguinal fat was digested by collagenase, and then SPA were separated by centrifugation from stromal vascular cells (SVC) and mature white adipocytes. To clarify the feature of gene expression in SPA, microarray and real-time PCR were performed. The expression of adipocyte-specific genes and several neuronal genes was increased in the order of SVC < SPA < mature white adipocytes. In addition, proliferin was detected only in SPA. SPA differentiated more effectively into lipid-laden cells than SVC. Moreover, differentiated SPA expressed uncoupling protein 1 and mitochondria-related genes more than differentiated SVC. Treatment of SPA with pioglitazone and CL316243, a specific β3-adrenergic receptor agonist, differentiated SPA into beige-like cells. Therefore, SPA are able to differentiate into beige cells. SPA isolated from epididymal fat (epididymal SPA), but not SPA from inguinal fat (inguinal SPA), expressed a marker of visceral adipocyte precursor, WT1. However, no significant differences were detected in the expression levels of adipocyte-specific genes or neuronal genes between epididymal and inguinal SPA. The ability to differentiate into lipid-laden cells in epididymal SPA was a little superior to that in inguinal SPA, whereas the ability to differentiate into beige-like cells was greater in inguinal SPA than epididymal SPA. In conclusion, SPA may be progenitors of beige cells.
Jin Sook Yoon, Hyun Jung Lee, Min Kyung Chae, Sang Yeul Lee and Eun Jig Lee
Cigarette smoking is known to aggravate Graves' orbitopathy (GO) severity by enhancing adipogenesis. We investigated the effect of quercetin, an antioxidant, on adipocyte differentiation induced by cigarette smoke extract (CSE) in primary cultured orbital fibroblasts (OFs) from GO patients. Freshly prepared CSE was added to the cells and H2O2 was used as a positive control. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and adipogenesis were measured. The expressions of proteins peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ, CCAAT-enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBP) α and β, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an antioxidant enzyme, were examined during adipogenic differentiation. In result, CSE and H2O2 dose-dependently stimulated intracellular ROS production in normal and Graves' OFs. The effect of 2% CSE was similar to that of 10 μM H2O2; both concentrations were noncytotoxic and were used throughout the experiment. Quercetin pretreatment reduced the ROS generation stimulated by either CSE or H2O2 in preadipocyte OFs. CSE and H2O2 stimulated adipocyte differentiation in cultured OFs. The addition of quercetin (50 or 100 μM) suppressed adipogenesis. Quercetin also suppressed ROS generation in differentiating OFs during adipogenesis stimulated by CSE and H2O2. Additionally, the expressions of PPARγ, C/EBPα, and C/EBPβ proteins were reduced in the quercetin-treated OFs. Quercetin also reduced the CSE- and H2O2-induced upregulation of ROS and HO-1 protein in differentiated OFs and preadipocyte OFs. As shown in this study, quercetin inhibited adipogenesis by reducing ROS in vitro, supporting the use of quercetin in the treatment of GO.
Min Liu, Shuo Xie, Weiwei Liu, Jingjin Li, Chao Li, Wei Huang, Hexin Li, Jinghai Song and Hong Zhang
Obesity is a worldwide health problem. Semaphorins are involved in axonal guidance; however, the role of secretory semaphorin 3G (SEMA3G) in regulating adipocyte differentiation remains unclear. Microarray analysis showed that the SEMA3G gene was upregulated in an in vitro model of adipogenesis. In this study, SEMA3G was highly expressed in the white adipose tissue and liver. Analysis of 3T3-L1 cell and primary mouse preadipocyte differentiation showed that SEMA3G mRNA and protein levels were increased during the middle stage of cell development. In vitro experiments also showed that adipocyte differentiation was promoted by SEMA3G; however, SEMA3G inhibition using a recombinant lentiviral vector expressing a specific shRNA showed the opposite results. Mice were fed a chow or high-fat diet (HFD); knockdown of SEMA3G was found to inhibit weight gain, reduce fat mass in the tissues, prevent lipogenesis in the liver tissue, reduce insulin resistance and ameliorate glucose tolerance in HFD mice. Additionally, the effect of SEMA3G on HFD-induced obesity was activated through PI3K/Akt/GSK3β signaling in the adipose tissue and the AMPK/SREBP-1c pathway in the liver. Moreover, the plasma concentrations of SEMA3G and leptin were measured in 20 obese and 20 non-obese human subjects. Both proteins were increased in obese subjects, who also exhibited a lower level of adiponectin and presented with insulin resistance. In summary, we demonstrated that SEMA3G is an adipokine essential for adipogenesis, lipogenesis, and insulin resistance and is associated with obesity. SEMA3G inhibition may, therefore, be useful for treating diet-induced obesity and its complications.