The induction of ovulation and follicular luteinization in the guinea-pig by follicle-stimulating (FSH) and luteinizing (LH) hormones was studied in the intact and in the hypophysectomized animal. Follicular luteinization could be produced as early as day 8 of the oestrous cycle by 250 mu. FSH, but not before day 10 by 400 mu. LH, while either FSH or LH caused ovulation when given on day 12 or later. When injected on day 13, luteinization could be induced with 62·5 mu. FSH or 200 mu. LH. Luteinization of follicles also occurred when 400 mu. LH or 250 mu. FSH was given immediately after hypophysectomy on day 13, but when hormone treatment was delayed for 4·5 h after surgery the incidence of luteinization was greatly reduced. Combined treatment with 200 mu. LH and 125 mu. FSH, by contrast, readily caused luteinization. It is concluded that ovarian follicles are resistant to luteinization during the first half of the oestrous cycle and that the response to LH late in the cycle is dependent upon the maintenance of follicular responsiveness by endogenous gonadotrophin.