In a closed endocrine loop, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D) induces the expression of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) in bone, with the phosphaturic peptide in turn acting at kidney to feedback repress CYP27B1 and induce CYP24A1 to limit the levels of 1,25D. In 3T3-L1 differentiated adipocytes, 1,25D represses FGF23 and leptin expression and induces C/EBPβ, but does not affect leptin receptor transcription. Conversely, in UMR-106 osteoblast-like cells, FGF23 mRNA concentrations are upregulated by 1,25D, an effect that is blunted by lysophosphatidic acid, a cell-surface acting ligand. Progressive truncation of the mouse FGF23 proximal promoter linked in luciferase reporter constructs reveals a 1,25D-responsive region between −400 and −200 bp. A 0.6 kb fragment of the mouse FGF23 promoter, linked in a reporter construct, responds to 1,25D with a fourfold enhancement of transcription in transfected K562 cells. Mutation of either an ETS1 site at −346 bp, or an adjacent candidate vitamin D receptor (VDR)/Nurr1-element, in the 0.6 kb reporter construct reduces the transcriptional activity elicited by 1,25D to a level that is not significantly different from a minimal promoter. This composite ETS1–VDR/Nurr1 cis-element may function as a switch between induction (osteocytes) and repression (adipocytes) of FGF23, depending on the cellular setting of transcription factors. Moreover, experiments demonstrate that a 1 kb mouse FGF23 promoter–reporter construct, transfected into MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells, responds to a high calcium challenge with a statistically significant 1.7- to 2.0-fold enhancement of transcription. Thus, the FGF23 proximal promoter harbors cis elements that drive responsiveness to 1,25D and calcium, agents that induce FGF23 to curtail the pathologic consequences of their excess.
Ichiro Kaneko, Rimpi K Saini, Kristin P Griffin, G Kerr Whitfield, Mark R Haussler and Peter W Jurutka
Paolo Comeglio, Ilaria Cellai, Tommaso Mello, Sandra Filippi, Elena Maneschi, Francesca Corcetto, Chiara Corno, Erica Sarchielli, Annamaria Morelli, Elena Rapizzi, Daniele Bani, Daniele Guasti, Gabriella Barbara Vannelli, Andrea Galli, Luciano Adorini, Mario Maggi and Linda Vignozzi
The bile acid receptors, farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and Takeda G-protein-coupled receptor 5 (TGR5), regulate multiple pathways, including glucose and lipid metabolism. In a rabbit model of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic syndrome, long-term treatment with the dual FXR/TGR5 agonist INT-767 reduces visceral adipose tissue accumulation, hypercholesterolemia and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. INT-767 significantly improves the hallmarks of insulin resistance in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and induces mitochondrial and brown fat-specific markers. VAT preadipocytes isolated from INT-767-treated rabbits, compared to preadipocytes from HFD, show increased mRNA expression of brown adipogenesis markers. In addition, INT-767 induces improved mitochondrial ultrastructure and dynamic, reduced superoxide production and improved insulin signaling and lipid handling in preadipocytes. Both in vivo and in vitro treatments with INT-767 counteract, in preadipocytes, the HFD-induced alterations by upregulating genes related to mitochondrial biogenesis and function. In preadipocytes, INT-767 behaves mainly as a TGR5 agonist, directly activating dose dependently the cAMP/PKA pathway. However, in vitro experiments also suggest that FXR activation by INT-767 contributes to the insulin signaling improvement. INT-767 treatment counteracts HFD-induced liver histological alterations and normalizes the increased pro-inflammatory genes. INT-767 also induces a significant reduction of fatty acid synthesis and fibrosis markers, while increasing lipid handling, insulin signaling and mitochondrial markers. In conclusion, INT-767 significantly counteracts HFD-induced liver and fat alterations, restoring insulin sensitivity and prompting preadipocytes differentiation toward a metabolically healthy phenotype.
S. C. Butterwith, C. D. Peddie and C. Goddard
The development of adipose tissue is dependent on the growth and differentiation of fibroblast-like adipocyte precursor cells. Culture of adipocyte precursor cells in vitro has provided an ideal system for identifying potential regulators of proliferation and differentiation. We have demonstrated that both acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) stimulate chicken adipocyte precursor DNA synthesis in a dose-dependent manner up to a concentration of 100 μg aFGF/l and 1 μg bFGF/l. The effect of bFGF was biphasic, so that in incubations with 25 μg bFGF/l, DNA synthesis was not significantly different from controls. In the presence of heparin, stimulation of DNA synthesis at 25 μg bFGF/l was 1·6-fold greater than at a concentration of 1 μg bFGF/l. Addition of heparin to incubations containing aFGF reduced the concentration required for maximum stimulation of DNA synthesis to 1 μg/l. Cells incubated with aFGF (1–100 μg/l) in combination with insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), platelet-derived growth factor, transforming growth factor-α or transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) exhibited a marked synergistic increase in DNA synthesis. This was also the case when 1 μg bFGF/l was used, but at a concentration of 25 pg bFGF/l synergy was only seen with IGF-I and TGF-β1. These results suggest that both basic and acidic FGF are potentially important regulators of adipocyte hyperplasia and that their effect is modulated by constituents of the extracellular matrix and the presence of other growth factors.
Journal of Endocrinology (1993) 137, 369–374
D Kraus, M Fasshauer, V Ott, B Meier, M Jost, HH Klein and J Klein
Leptin is an important adipocytokine whose main regulative effects on energy metabolism are exerted via activation of signalling pathways in the central nervous system. Another important regulator of energy homeostasis is insulin. The role of direct autocrine leptin effects on adipose tissue and crosstalk with insulin, in particular in the thermogenically active brown adipose tissue, remains unclear. In the present study, we have investigated leptin secretion and interaction with insulin in highly insulin-responsive immortalised mouse brown adipocytes. Leptin was secreted in a differentiation-dependent manner, and acute leptin treatment of mature adipocytes dose- and time-dependently stimulated phosphorylation of STAT3 and MAP kinase. Interestingly, acute pretreatment of fully differentiated brown adipocytes with leptin (100 nM) significantly diminished insulin-induced glucose uptake by approximately 25%. This inhibitory effect was time-dependent and maximal after 60 min of leptin prestimulation. Furthermore, it correlated with a 35% reduction in insulin-stimulated insulin receptor kinase activity after acute leptin pretreatment. Insulin-induced insulin receptor substrate-1 tyrosine phosphorylation and binding to the regulatory subunit p85 of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) were diminished by approximately 60% and 40%, respectively. Taken together, this study has demonstrated strong differentiation-dependent leptin secretion in brown adipocytes and PI 3-kinase-mediated negative autocrine effects of this hormone on insulin action. Direct peripheral leptin-insulin crosstalk may play an important role in the regulation of energy homeostasis.
K Walder, A Filippis, S Clark, P Zimmet and GR Collier
Leptin is secreted from adipose tissue, and is thought to act as a 'lipostat', signalling the body fat levels to the hypothalamus resulting in adjustments to food intake and energy expenditure to maintain body weight homeostasis. In addition, plasma leptin concentrations have been shown to be related to insulin sensitivity independent of body fat content, suggesting that the hyperleptinemia found in obesity could contribute to the insulin resistance. We investigated the effects of leptin on insulin binding by isolated adipocytes. Adipocytes isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats exhibited a dose-dependent reduction in the uptake of 125I-labelled insulin when incubated with various concentrations of exogenous leptin. For example, addition of 50 nM leptin reduced total insulin binding in isolated adipocytes by 19% (P < 0.05). Analysis of displacement curve binding data suggested that leptin reduced maximal insulin binding in a dose-dependent manner, but had no significant effect on the affinity of insulin for its binding site. We conclude that leptin directly inhibited insulin binding by adipocytes, and the role of leptin in the development of insulin resistance in obese individuals requires further investigation.
William WN Jr, RB Ceddia and R Curi
Leptin directly increases the rate of exogenous glucose and fatty acids oxidation in isolated adipocytes. However, the effects of leptin on fatty acid metabolism in white adipose tIssue have not been examined in detail. Here, we report that in adipocytes incubated for 6 h in the presence of leptin (10 ng/ml), the insulin-stimulated de novo fatty acid synthesis was inhibited by 36% (P<0.05), while the exogenous oxidation of acetic and oleic acids was increased by 50% and 76% respectively. Interestingly, leptin did not alter the oxidation of intracellular fatty acids. Leptin-incubated cells presented a 16-fold increase in the incorporation of oleic acid into triglyceride (TG) and a 123% increase in the intracellular TG hydrolysis (as measured by free fatty acids release). Fatty acid-TG cycling was not affected by leptin. By employing fatty acids radiolabeled with (3)H and (14)C, we could determine the concomitant influx of fatty acids (incorporation of fatty acids into TG) and efflux of fatty acids (intracellular fatty acids oxidation and free fatty acids release) in the incubated cells. Leptin increased by 30% the net efflux of fatty acids from adipocytes. We conclude that leptin directly inhibits de novo synthesis of fatty acids and increases the release and oxidation of fatty acids in isolated rat adipocytes. These direct energy-dissipating effects of leptin may play an important role in reducing accumulation of fatty acids into TG of rat adipose cells.
M. Th. Sutter-Dub, A. Sfaxi, F. Latrille, F. Sodoyez-Goffaux and J. C. Sodoyez
Insulin resistance was investigated in the adipose cell of rats which were at days 16 and 20 of pregnancy. Data are presented to relate insulin binding and biological effect, which was evaluated by the ability of insulin to stimulate [1-14C]glucose oxidation. Adipocytes from pregnant rats bound more insulin than fat cells from control (non-pregnant) animals and the number of insulin receptors per adipocyte increased during pregnancy. Basal glucose oxidation rate was decreased at 16 and 20 days of pregnancy: however, the dose–response curve for insulin-stimulated glucose oxidation was significantly depressed only after 20 days of pregnancy. The concentration at which insulin increased glucose oxidation by 50% increased with the duration of pregnancy. We conclude that during pregnancy in the rat the adipocyte response to insulin was decreased, despite an increase in insulin binding. This result suggests that a major determinant of insulin resistance in rat adipocytes during pregnancy is present after the initial insulin–receptor interaction. Consequently, a post-receptor defect may be largely responsible for the insulin resistance.
J. Endocr. (1984) 102, 209–214
Sebastian Weise, Susan Kralisch, Grit Sommer, Ulrike Lossner, Matthias Bluher, Michael Stumvoll and Mathias Fasshauer
The adipokine tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 is upregulated when weight is gained and promotes adipose tissue development. In the present study, the effect of insulin resistance-inducing and proinflammatory interleukin (IL)-1β on TIMP-1 gene expression and secretion was investigated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Interestingly, protein secretion and mRNA production of TIMP-1 were significantly stimulated by IL-1β. Thus, IL-1β induced TIMP-1 secretion in a dose-dependent manner with maximal 3.5-fold upregulation seen at 0.67 ng/ml IL-1β relative to untreated cells. Furthermore, TIMP-1 mRNA synthesis was significantly stimulated by IL-1β in a dose-dependent fashion with 2.5-fold induction seen at IL-1β concentrations as low as 0.02 ng/ml and maximal 8.1-fold upregulation found at 20 ng/ml effector. Induction of TIMP-1 mRNA was also time dependent with maximal 9.6-fold upregulation detectable after 8 h of IL-1β treatment. Signaling studies suggested that janus kinase 2 is involved in IL-1β-induced TIMP-1 mRNA expression. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the TIMP-1 expression is selectively upregulated by proinflammatory IL-1β, supporting a direct association between insulin resistance, inflammation, and adipose tissue development in obesity.
A P Santos-Silva, E Oliveira, C R Pinheiro, A C Santana, C C Nascimento-Saba, Y Abreu-Villaça, E G Moura and P C Lisboa
Children from pregnant smokers show more susceptibility to develop obesity in adult life. Previously, we failed to demonstrate a program for obesity in rat offspring only when the mothers were exposed to tobacco smoke during lactation. Here, we studied the short- and long-term effects of smoke exposure (SE) to both dams and their pups during lactation on endocrine and metabolic parameters. For this, we designed an experimental model where nursing rats and their pups were divided into two groups: SE group, exposed to smoke in a cigarette smoking machine (four times/day, from the third to the 21st day of lactation), and group, exposed to filtered air. Pups were killed at 21 and 180 days. At weaning, SE pups showed lower body weight (7%), length (5%), retroperitoneal fat mass (59%), visceral adipocyte area (60%), and higher subcutaneous adipocyte area (95%) with hypoinsulinemia (−29%), hyperthyroxinemia (59%), hypercorticosteronemia (60%), and higher adrenal catecholamine content (+58%). In adulthood, SE offspring showed higher food intake (+10%), body total fat mass (+50%), visceral fat mass (retroperitoneal: 55%; mesenteric: 67%; and epididymal: 55%), and lower subcutaneous adipocyte area (24%) with higher serum glucose (11%), leptin (85%), adiponectin (1.4-fold increase), total triiodothyronine (71%), free thyroxine (57%), TSH (36%), triglycerides (65%), VLDL cholesterol (+66%), and HDL cholesterol (91%) levels and lower corticosteronemia (41%) and adrenal catecholamine content (57%). Our present findings suggest that tobacco SE to both dams and their pups during lactation causes malnutrition in early life that programs for obesity and hormonal and metabolic disturbances in adulthood, only if the pups are submitted to the same smoke environment as the mother.
V Pineiro, X Casabiell, R Peino, M Lage, JP Camina, C Menendez, J Baltar, C Dieguez and F Casanueva
Leptin, the product of the Ob gene, is a polypeptide hormone expressed in adipocytes which acts as a signalling factor from the adipose tissue to the central nervous system, regulating food intake and energy expenditure. It has been reported that circulating leptin levels are higher in women than in men, even after correction for body fat. This gender-based difference may be conditioned by differences in the levels of androgenic hormones. To explore this possibility, a systematic in vitro study with organ cultures from human omental adipose tissue, either stimulated or not with androgens (1 microM), was undertaken in samples obtained from surgery on 44 non-obese donors (21 women and 23 men). The assay was standardized in periods of 24 h, ending at 96 h, with no apparent tissue damage. Leptin results are expressed as the mean+/-s.e.m. of the integrated secretion into the medium, expressed as ng leptin/g tissue per 48 h. Spontaneous leptin secretion in samples from female donors (4149+/-301) was significantly higher (P<0.01) than that from male donors (2456+/-428). Testosterone did not exert any significant effect on in vitro leptin secretion in either gender (4856+/-366 in women, 3322+/-505 in men). Coincubation of adipose tissue with dihydrotestosterone (DHT) induced a significant (P<0.05) leptin decrease in samples taken from women (3119+/-322) but not in those taken from men (2042+/-430). Stanozolol, a non-aromatizable androgen, decreased (P<0.05) leptin secretion in female samples (2809+/-383) but not in male (1553+/-671). Dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S) induced a significant (P<0.01) leptin decrease in female samples (2996+/-473), with no modifications in samples derived from males (1596+/-528). Exposure to androstenedione also resulted in a significant reduction (P<0.01) of leptin secretion in samples taken from women (2231+/-264), with no effect on male adipose tissue (1605+/-544). In conclusion, DHT, stanozolol, DHEA-S and androstenedione induced a significant inhibition of in vitro leptin secretion in samples from female donors, without affecting the secretion in samples from men. Testosterone was devoid of activity in either gender.