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  • Author: E. Decuypere x
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M M Cokelaere, P Busselen, G Flo, P Daenens, E Decuypere, E Kühn and M Van Boven

Abstract

Simmondsin, a glycoside extracted from jojoba meal (Simmondsia chinensis), causes a reduction in food intake after oral administration. To investigate the mechanism by which simmondsin reduces food intake, fasted and freefeeding rats were given simmondsin-supplemented food and simultaneously injected with devazepide, a specific antagonist of peripheral-type cholecystokinin receptors (CCKA receptors). In free-feeding rats, supplementation of food with 0·5% simmondsin caused a reduction in food intake of ± 40% in the period of 4 h following food presentation. Intraperitoneal injection of 100 μg devazepide/kg body weight prevented this effect. In rats fasted for 20 h, the food intake in the 30 min after presentation of food supplemented with 0·15% or 0·50% simmondsin was reduced in a dose-related manner; this was also inhibited by simultaneous application of devazepide. It is suggested that peripheral CCKA receptors are involved in the effect of simmondsin on food intake. However, a direct effect of simmondsin on CCKA receptors has been excluded, since simmondsin was unable to cause contraction of the guinea-pig gallbladder in vitro.

Journal of Endocrinology (1995) 147, 473–477

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M. Tixier-Boichard, L. M. Huybrechts, E. Decuypere, E. R. Kühn, J.-L. Monvoisin, G. Coquerelle, J. Charrier and J. Simon

ABSTRACT

This study used a sex-linked dwarf mutant (SLD) chicken to evaluate growth-promoting and metabolic effects of recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-I (rhIGF-I) treatment. The SLD chicken is characterized by a 30% reduction in body weight and by high plasma GH levels, low plasma IGF-I and triiodothyronine (T3) levels and very low GH binding on liver membranes, suggesting reduced functional GH receptors compared with normal chickens. The effects of a continuous s.c. infusion by osmotic mini-pump of 0·1 mg rhIGF-I/kg per day from 4 to 8 weeks of age on body weight, bone growth and body composition were investigated in female SLD and normal chicks. In addition, half of the birds received a dietary supplement of T3 (0·1 parts per million). Plasma levels of IGF-I, GH, T3, thyroxine and insulin were followed during the treatment. In normal chicks, rhIGF-I infusion had no effect on growth and little effect on plasma hormone levels except for a decrease in plasma insulin. In dwarf chicks, rhIGF-I infusion slightly increased body weight but had no effect on longitudinal bone growth. In addition, plasma GH levels were decreased and T3 levels remained lower than in normal chicks. Normal and dwarf chicks showed a decrease in abdominal fat after both IGF-I administration and T3 supplementation, the treatments having additive effects in dwarf chicks only. The combined rhIGF-I and T3 treatment restored a quasi-normal hormonal pattern in dwarf chicks, except for insulin which remained lower than in normal chicks. These results suggest that IGF-I in the chicken has no direct endocrine effect on statural growth.

Journal of Endocrinology (1992) 133, 101–110

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R Vasilatos-Younken, Y Zhou, X Wang, JP McMurtry, RW Rosebrough, E Decuypere, N Buys, VM Darras, S Van Der Geyten and F Tomas

In contrast to most vertebrates, GH reportedly has no effect upon somatic growth of the chicken. However, previous studies employed only one to two dosages of the hormone, and limited evidence exists of a hyperthyroid response that may confound its anabolic potential. This study evaluated the effects of 0, 10, 50, 100 and 200 microgram/kg body weight per day chicken GH (cGH) (0-200 GH) infused i.v. for 7 days in a pulsatile pattern to immature, growing broiler chickens (9-10 birds/dosage). Comprehensive profiles of thyroid hormone metabolism and measures of somatic growth were obtained. Overall (average) body weight gain was reduced 25% by GH, with a curvilinear, dose-dependent decrease in skeletal (breast) muscle mass that was maximal (12%) at 100 GH. This profile mirrored GH dose-dependent decreases in hepatic type III deiodinase (DIII) activity and increases in plasma tri-iodothyronine (T(3)), with bot! h also maximal (74 and 108% respectively) at 100 GH. No effect on type I deiodinase was observed. At the maximally effective dosage, hepatic DIII gene expression was reduced 44% versus controls. Despite dose-dependent, fold-increases in hepatic IGF-I protein content, circulating IGF-I was not altered with GH infusion, suggesting impairment of hepatic IGF-I release. Significant, GH dose-dependent increases in plasma non-esterified fatty acid and glucose, and overall decreases in triacylglycerides were also observed. At 200 GH, feed intake was significantly reduced (19%; P<0.05) versus controls; however, additional control birds pair-fed to this level did not exhibit any responses observed for GH-treated birds. The results of this study support a pathway by which GH impacts on thyroid hormone metabolism beginning at a pretranslational level, with reduced hepatic DIII gene expression, translating to reduced protein (enzyme) ex! pression, and reflected in a reduced level of peripheral T(3)-degrading activity. This contributes to decreased conversion of T(3) to its inactive form, thereby elevating circulating T(3) levels. The hyper-T(3) state leads to reduced net skeletal muscle deposition, and may impair release of GH-enhanced, hepatic IGF-I. In conclusion, GH has significant biological effects in the chicken, but profound metabolic actions predominate that may confound positive, IGF-I-mediated skeletal muscle growth.