GH-releasing peptides (GHRPs), a class of small synthetic peptide and non-peptide compounds, act on specific receptors at both the pituitary and the hypothalamic level to stimulate GH release in both humans and other animals. GHRPs, like corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), also possess acute ACTH- and cortisol-releasing activity, although the mechanisms underlying the stimulatory effect of GHRPs on the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are still unclear. In recent years, studies in humans and other animals have provided evidence that the rebound GH rise which follows withdrawal of an infusion of somatostatin (SS) (SSIW) is due, at least in part, to the functional activation of GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) neurons of the recipient organism. Unexpectedly, in humans, SS infusion, at a dose inhibiting basal GH secretion, has been associated with an activation of the HPA axis, leading to the hypothesis that this response was mediated, at least in part, by a central nervous system ACTH-releasing mechanism activated by the SS-induced decrease in GH secretion. Interestingly, the rebound GH rise which follows SSIW was magnified by the administration, before SS withdrawal, of a GHRP, implying that the SSIW approach could also be exploited to investigate in vivo the functional interaction in the process of GH and/or ACTH/cortisol secretion between endogenous GHRH (and/or other ACTH-releasing mechanisms) and GHRPs. In the present study, six young beagle dogs were given, on different occasions, at the beginning and at the end of a 3-h i.v. infusion of SS or saline (SAL), a bolus of physiological SAL or a GHRP compound, EP51216. SSIW induced a GH rebound rise without affecting plasma cortisol concentrations, while the withdrawal of SAL infusion was ineffective on either hormone paradigm. Administration of EP51216 at the beginning of SAL infusion evoked release of both GH and cortisol, whereas EP51216 administration at the withdrawal of SAL infusion evoked somatotroph and cortisol responses which were reduced in amplitude and duration. SS infusion significantly reduced the secretion of GH elicited by EP51216 but did not affect the rise of plasma cortisol levels. Interestingly, SSIW resulted in a marked enhancement of the somatotroph and cortisol responses evoked by EP51216. The marked rise of plasma GH levels induced by the GHRP after SSIW recalled that occurring after acute combined administration of recombinant human GHRH and EP51216, implying that exogenously delivered GHRP had synergized with the endogenous GHRH release triggered by SSIW. In contrast, acute combined administration of GHRH and the GHRP induced a cortisol response not different from that induced by GHRP alone, indicating that endogenous GHRH release was not involved in the enhanced cortisol response following EP51216 administration after SSIW. Similarly, the direct involvement of endogenous CRH could be ruled out, since i.v. administration of ovine CRH after SSIW evoked cortisol peak levels not different from those evoked by CRH at the withdrawal of SAL infusion. In conclusion, enhancement of the GH response to EP51216 alone by SSIW, to an extent reminiscent of that following combined administration of GHRH and EP61216, reinforces the view that SSIW elicits release of endogenous GHRH. Further studies are indeed necessary for a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the enhanced cortisol response, since from now on the involvement of endogenous GHRH or CRH can be ruled out.
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AE Rigamonti, SM Bonomo, SG Cella, and EE Muller
AE Rigamonti, N Marazzi, SG Cella, L Cattaneo, and EE Muller
Using unanesthetized young male and female beagle dogs, before and after a 2-day fast, we studied the effect of an i.v. infusion of 0.9% saline (5 ml/h), somatostatin (SS, 4 or 8 micrograms/kg/h), or pretreatment with pirenzepine (PZ, 0.6 mg/kg i.v.), a muscarinic cholinergic antagonist which allegedly releases SS, on the GH release evoked by acute administration of GHRH (2 micrograms/kg i.v.), hexarelin (HEXA), a member of the GH-releasing peptide family (250 micrograms/kg i.v.) or GHRH plus HEXA. In fasted dogs, GHRH delivered during saline infusion induced a clear-cut rise in plasma GH levels, significantly higher than that which it induced in fed dogs. In contrast, HEXA, although very effective in causing the release of GH, only slightly increased GH secretion in fasted dogs over that which it induced in fed dogs. Co-administration of GHRH plus HEXA into fed dogs induced a synergic GH response that further increased with fasting. The action of GHRH in fed dogs was abolished by the lower dose of SS, whereas SS at either dose was ineffective in suppressing the GH-releasing effect during fasting. Infusion of the lower dose of SS failed to counter the action of HEXA, either before or during fasting, whilst the higher SS dose partially reduced it in both conditions. In contrast to SS, PZ reduced the GH-releasing effect of GHRH and HEXA, both in the fed state and, though to a lesser extent, during fasting. Pirenzepine only slightly reduced the robust GH rise elicited by GHRH plus HEXA in fed dogs. The suppressive effect of PZ on the GH response to combined administration of the peptides was lowest in fasted dogs. These data show that: (1) fasting augmented the GH response to GHRH and (to a lesser degree) to HEXA; (2) SS inhibited the GH response to GHRH in the fed state, but not in the fasted state; (3) only the higher dose of SS partially reduced the GH stimulation by HEXA in either the fed or the fasted state; (4) PZ lowered the GH response to GHRH and to HEXA in both the fed and (to a lesser degree) the fasted state; (5) PZ did not modify the GH release due to the combined administration of GHRH and HEXA. It is suggested that: (1) during fasting the greatly enhanced GH response to GHRH alone or GHRH plus HEXA probably reflects an augmented GHRH secretion; (2) somatotrope refractoriness to SS may contribute to the enhanced GH secretion in states of calorie deprivation; (3) in contrast to a general belief, muscarinic cholinergic antagonists, e.g. PZ, do not act exclusively via release of SS, but probably also through inhibition of GHRH function.
V De Gennaro-Colonna, G Rossoni, D Cocchi, AE Rigamonti, F Berti, and EE Muller
Genetically obese male Zucker rats have an impaired secretion of GH, coupled to hyperinsulinemia, hyperlipidemia and glucose intolerance. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a chronic treatment with hexarelin, a synthetic enkephalin-derived hexapeptide with a potent GH-releasing activity, might be able to ameliorate the somatotropic function and reverse some metabolic alterations associated with obesity in male obese Zucker rats. Furthermore, as decreased GH secretion and insulin resistance are associated with increased cardiovascular risk, we also tested the capacity of hexarelin to prevent postischemic ventricular dysfunction in hearts of male obese Zucker rats. Obese and lean male rats of the Zucker strain were treated with hexarelin (80 microgram/kg, b.i.d., s.c.) or saline (1 ml/kg, b.i.d., s.c.) for 30 days. An acute hexarelin injection (80 microgram, s.c.) at the 28th day of treatment elicited a rise in plasma GH levels in ! lean but not in obese rats (pretreated or not with hexarelin); lean rats chronically treated with hexarelin showed a greater increase in plasma GH as compared with control counterparts. At the end of the experiment, pituitary GH mRNA levels were significantly reduced in obese rats and hexarelin administration failed to increase pituitary GH mRNA and IGF-I concentrations in plasma and heart. Chronic treatment with hexarelin increased insulinemia and blood glucose levels in obese but not in lean rats, left unaltered the high triglyceride levels but significantly decreased plasma cholesterol concentrations in obese rats. Heart preparations from lean and obese Zucker rats treated with saline, subjected to low flow ischemia and reperfusion, showed at reperfusion: a) a low recovery of postischemic left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), coupled to a substantial increase in coronary perfusion pressure, and b) a marked increase in creatine kinase released in the perfusates. Hexare! lin administration for 30 days counteracted the heart ischemic damage both in lean and obese Zucker rats. In fact, the recovery of LVDP at reperfusion was significantly higher than in controls and the increase in coronary resistance was minimal. Collectively, these data indicate that a 30-day treatment with hexarelin was unable to improve somatotropic function in male obese Zucker rats but was successful in decreasing plasma cholesterol concentrations. Hexarelin exerted a cardioprotective effect in both lean and obese rats. The heart-protective activity afforded by the peptide was divorced from any stimulation of the GH axis and is probably exerted through activation of specific cardiac receptors.
V Sibilia, AE Rigamonti, F Pagani, N Lattuada, F Guidobono, WB Wehrenberg, EE Muller, and C Netti
The effects of neonatal passive immunization against GHRH on bone was examined in male and female rats. Pups were treated subcutaneously with GHRH-antiserum (GHRH-Ab) from day 1 to day 10 of age. Bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) were evaluated at monthly intervals until 7 months. Markers of bone resorption (urinary lysylpyridinoline, LP), bone formation (serum osteocalcin, OC) and serum IGF-I were measured at 2, 3 and 7 months. In male rats, GHRH-Ab did not modify BMC and BMD when compared with controls. In contrast, female rats demonstrated lower whole body and femoral BMC and BMD from 2 to 7 months of age. Reduced bone growth in the females was associated with lower IGF-I levels than controls at 2 and 3 months of age, whereas in males IGF-I titers did not change during the period of the study. LP excretion was higher in GHRH-Ab-treated rats at 2 and 3 months in both sexes. In females, no difference in OC values was recorded, whereas in GHRH-Ab-treated males, there was an increase in OC levels at 2 and 3 months. These data indicate that transient GHRH deprivation induces an osteopenic effect in female rats which is not evident in male rats.
AE Rigamonti, AI Pincelli, B Corra, R Viarengo, SM Bonomo, D Galimberti, M Scacchi, E Scarpini, F Cavagnini, and EE Muller
Ghrelin, a novel endogenous ligand for the GH secretagogue receptor, has been reported to stimulate GH secretion and food intake in both humans and other animals. Interestingly, recent data indicate that ghrelin is up- and down-regulated in anorexia nervosa (AN) and obesity, which are also known to be accompanied by increased and reduced GH levels respectively. Ageing is associated with a gradual but progressive reduction in GH secretion, and by alterations in appetite and food intake. The role of ghrelin in the decline of somatotroph function and the anorexia of ageing is unknown. To investigate the influence of age on circulating levels of ghrelin, a total of 19 young and old normal weight subjects (Y-NW, n=12; O-NW, n=7), six patients with active AN (A-AN), and seven patients with morbid obesity (OB) were studied. In addition to fasting plasma ghrelin concentrations, baseline serum TSH, IGF-I and insulin levels were measured. Mean plasma ghrelin concentrations in A-AN or OB were higher and lower respectively than those present in Y-NW. Interestingly, mean plasma ghrelin concentrations in O-NW were significantly lower than those present in Y-NW and superimposable on those of OB. The mean fasting plasma ghrelin concentrations in all groups of subjects were negatively correlated with body mass index and serum insulin levels, but not with TSH and IGF-I levels. This study provides evidence of an age-related decline of plasma ghrelin concentrations, which might explain, at least partially, the somatotroph dysregulation and the anorexia of the elderly subject.