Results in 53 llamas (33 mated animals and 20 controls) showed that ovulation is copulation-induced in this species. Ovulation without copulation occasionally occurred during the height of the recognized breeding season in Bolivia.
The first mating during the luteal phase (12–24 days after the preceding ovulation) resulted in ovulation in four out of ten llamas.
Determination of pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) content showed the highest level on the day before mating (9·00 μg./mg.) and the lowest level on day 4 (6·25 μg./mg.). LH level on day 8 was significantly higher than on day 4 (7·62 μg./mg.). Corpora lutea (c.l.) were well formed on day 4 after mating (408 mg.), reached a maximum size by day 8 (1920 mg.) and rapidly decreased in size to day 16 (136 mg.). The corpus albicans remained as an entity but decreased in size to 21 mg. on day 120. Similar changes were found in c.l. histology and progesterone content. The combined results indicate that the functional life of the c.l. in a non-pregnant llama is 16 days or less.
Treatment with 25 i.u. human chorionic gonadotrophin was sufficient to cause ovulation in 50% of the animals treated.
A large (150 mg.) dose of norethandrolone did not cause morphological regression of the c.l. when measured 5 days after treatment. Treatment with 5 mg. daily for 14 days caused regression of c.l. as compared with untreated controls and animals treated with oestradiol valerate.