Expression of insulin receptor substrates (IRS)-1 and -2 within the mammary gland was found to be high at mid-lactation and dramatically decreased with mammary involution. This observation supports the hypothesis that these proteins are induced in the mammary gland with lactogenesis and involved in normal milk synthesis. To test this hypothesis, lactation capacity, along with indices of mammary secretory cell glucose metabolism and cell signaling were compared in normal mice and mice carrying targeted mutations in either the Irs1 or Irs2 genes. Mammary IRS-1 and IRS-2 protein levels were increased within 1 day of parturition and reached maximal levels by 5 days post partum. Dams carrying germline mutations of Irs1 or Irs2 displayed reduced lactation capacity as assessed by weight gain of pup litters. The reduction was more dramatic in Irs1 −/− versus Irs2 −/− dams. Maternal body weight was also reduced in Irs1 −/− dams as well as in Irs1 +/− Irs2 +/− dams. The loss of IRS-1 had little impact on mammary gland expression of milk protein mRNAs, glucose transport, or on the abundance and subcellular localization of hexokinases I and II. The loss of IRS-1 was associated with a compensatory increase in insulin-induced IRS-2 phosphorylation; however, the loss of IRS-1 did also cause a reduction in insulin-dependent mammary gland-specific activation of Akt phosphorylation. These results support the conclusion that IRS-1 is important for insulin-dependent activation of Akt signaling within the lactating mammary gland, but that loss of this protein has only modest impact on normal milk synthesis, since related signaling proteins such as IRS-2 may act in compensatory fashion.
Darryl L Hadsell, Walter Olea, Nicole Lawrence, Jessy George, Daniel Torres, Takahashi Kadowaki and Adrian V Lee
Sharon Maor, Doris Mayer, Ronit I Yarden, Adrian V Lee, Rive Sarfstein, Haim Werner and Moshe Z Papa
The insulin-like growth factors, IGF-I and IGF-II are a familyof mitogenic polypeptides with important roles in growth and differentiation. The biological actions of the IGFs are mediated by the IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR), a cell-surface tyrosine kinase, whose activation by serum IGF-I seems to be a key step in breast cancer initiation. Evidence accumulated indicates that estrogens stimulate the expression and activity of IGF axis components. The aim of our study was to examine the transcriptional mechanisms involved in regulation of IGF-IR gene expression by the estrogen receptor (ER). For this purpose, transient transfections using an IGF-IR promoter-luciferase reporter plasmid were performed in breast cancer-c derived ER-positive MCF-7 cells and isogenic ER-negative C4 cells. To examine the potential involvement of zinc-finger nuclear proteins in the transactivating effect of estrogens, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiments were performed using an Sp1 antibody, along with the Sp1-family-binding inhibitor Mithramycin A. The results obtained indicate that basal IGF-IR promoter activity was 5.8-fold higher in MCF-7 than in C4 cells. Estradiol treatment significantly activated the IGF-IR promoter in MCF-7, but not in C4 cells. Furthermore, the estrogen responsive region in the IGF-IR promoter was mapped to a GC-rich sequence located between nucleotides −40 and −188 in the 5′ flanking region. ChIP experiments revealed that at least part of the estrogen effect on IGF-IR expression was mediated through activation of the Sp1 transcription factor. In summary, our studies demonstrate that IGF-IR gene transcription in breast cancer cells is controlled by interactions between ERα and Sp1. Dysregulated expression of the IGF-IR gene may have pathologic consequences with relevance in breast cancer etiology.